Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej <p>Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej są projektem wydawniczym Centrum Studiów Azji Wschodniej Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Czasopismo naukowe jest polem do dyskusji dla przedstawicieli różnych ośrodków akademickich i różnych dziedzin wiedzy, którzy w swoich zainteresowaniach naukowych podejmują tematy dotyczące krajów Azji Wschodniej, głównie Chin, Japonii i Korei, ale też innych państw tego regionu.</p> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego pl-PL Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej 2084-2902 "The Economy and Business Environment of Vietnam", ed. Roderick Macdonald, Palgrave Macmillan 2020, pp. xv + 137 Marceli Hązła Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 262 266 Arkadiusz Jabłoński, "Polski leksykon japońskich terminów gramatycznych", Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Toruń 2021, t. 1 (A–K, ss. 494), t. 2 (L–R, ss. 406), t. 3 (S–Z, ss. 394) Krzysztof Olszewski Prawa autorskie (c) 0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 20 266 269 Inwazja japońska na Półwysep Koreański w latach 1592–1598 a roszczenia restytucyjne Koreańczyków <p>The article presents a brief history of the Japanese invasion of the Korean Peninsula in the end of the 16th century (also called the Imjin war) as well as it’s tragic effects. This conflict brought not only countless victims and desolation of cities and farmlands, but also complete cultural devastation in the Joseon Kingdom. Thousands of Korean cultural goods were demolished or burned down, while others were taken away to Japan and some of them are considered to be a part of Japanese cultural heritage. Therefore, it should be answered if Koreans nowadays have any right to demand restitution of these stolen objects. Korean recovery claims are mostly based on byronism and cultural nationalism, considering the lack of legal measures. The interest of the Japanese side to reject restitution of looted goods is secured by <em>ius praedae</em>. In the 16th century, it was a crucial principle of international law allowing one country to invade and plunder another, therefore, the Japanese are not obliged to return any of the appropriated objects. Nevertheless, in consideration of improving tense relations between the two countries, negotiating a settlement reciprocal for both parties concerning restitution claims of the Koreans through diplomatic channels should be undertaken.</p> Adrianna Chodowiec Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 250 261 Wajda. Człowiek z Gdańska. Wystawa rysunków, akwarel i plakatów na Uniwersytecie Gdańskim ze zbiorów Muzeum Sztuki i Techniki Japońskiej Manggha w Krakowie, Gdańsk, 5 października 2021 r. – 30 stycznia 2022 r. Joanna Kamień Kamil Zeidler Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 270 273 Podstawowe aspekty wykładni prawa w chińskim porządku prawnym <p>Chinese legal culture was shaped in a different way than Western legal culture, these differences have a significant impact on the rule of law, fundamental rights and democracy in contemporary China. Legal interpretation is one of the formal sources of law in China. The authority to interpret legislation is usually characterized as a legislative rather than a judicial function. The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC), the State Council and the Supreme People’s Court have a special role in interpretive activities. Chinese legal interpretation includes semantic rules, the cultural and linguistic context of law, basic constitutional principles, the hierarchy of sources of law and reasoning by analogy.</p> Karol Gregorczuk Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 7 22 Prawna ochrona zwierząt w Chinach. Aspekty filozoficzne i prawne <p>Organizations involved in the protection of animals have long indicated the need for changes in Chinese legislation, which, in their opinion, insufficiently protects the welfare of animals (both wild and farmed). This matter has recently been a subject of debate in China itself. Some Chinese scholars point out the negative aspects of the Chinese economic miracle, including the environmental degradation and bad situation and living conditions of livestock and wild animals. Postulates to improve the situation of animals, however, also have their opponents, and one of the more often cited critical arguments is the one about the “extraneousness” of the concept of animal rights and animal welfare in Chinese intellectual culture, and the imposing of “western values” on China.</p> <p>In the article, I verify the above statement by analyzing the most important Chinese philosophical systems: Taoism, Confucianism and the Chinese type of Buddhism, as well as the Chinese communist thought, in terms of their positions regarding the obligation of humans towards animals. I also analyze changes in the contemporary approach to animal protection and animal welfare, based on the example of the amendment to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife.</p> Wojciech Jankowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 23 37 Restytucja dóbr kultury utraconych przez Chińską Republikę Ludową na przykładzie odzyskiwania brązowych głów zwierząt z Yuanming Yuan <p>Restitution of cultural goods is a very complicated issue in practice, encountering many problems on its way. Most international conventions, including the 1970 UNESCO Convention and the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention, provide for non-retroactivity of their provisions and a limited time to bring claims for reimbursement. Another problem is the still low number of ratifications of both conventions, especially the one from 1995. Also, the national legislation of many countries still does not contain regulations in this area and appropriate restitution instruments.</p> <p>Once the Chinese government realized the value of its cultural heritage treasures as a source of national and political identity, it began the process of restoring looted cultural assets. This is not an easy task, because a large part of the objects was stolen a long time ago, which directly prevents the application of international legal regimes resulting from conventions on the return of stolen or illegally exported goods.</p> <p>The case of bronze statues from the Yuanming Yuan shows another way to recover looted cultural goods. It is based primarily on the national identity of Chinese society, which treats looted artifacts as an important element of their history and culture. Thanks to private collectors and entrepreneurs who had bought such objects and then donated them to Chinese museums and institutions, it was possible to regain many of the lost cultural goods.</p> <p>The aim of article is to provide a general overview of the People’s Republic of China’s restitution policy, its methods and effects, using the example of the recovery of Chinese bronze heads stolen from Yuanming Yuan.</p> Aleksandra Guss Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 38 54 Wizerunek Chinek w wybranej polskiej prasie międzywojennej w latach 30. XX w. <p>Among the interests of the pre-war press, both mass and specialized, was China. Most of the space was devoted to the inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom: “Ivy” and mass magazines, associated with the <em>Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny </em>[Illustrated Daily Courier], whose readers were also usually female citizens of the Second Polish Republic: <em>As </em>[Ace] and <em>Na</em> <em>Szerokim Świecie </em>[In the Broad World]”.</p> <p>In the Polish press, Chinese women were presented either as mysterious women of exotic beauty, who used to have mysterious souls, victims of the patriarchal system, or emancipated women fighting for their rights in political, professional and social life. Mass magazines often focused primarily on both the external appearance and spirituality of the Chinese. However, while the inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom were described as beautiful and elegant women, their character was usually portrayed in a negative light. It was emphasized that many of them served as not only charming, but well-educated courtesans. Both mass magazines and the women’s press were alarmed that the situation of Chinese women was very severe and was due to their low position in society. As a significant example, they gave the habit of foot binding.</p> <p>The women’s press, however, further emphasized that the situation of Chinese women gradually improved thanks to feminist movements. And among the most important representative women’s press mentioned Meling Sung. Both <em>Bluszcz </em>[Ivy] and <em>Ziemianka Polska</em> [Polish Lady Landowner] placed more emphasis on the professional emancipation of citizens of the Middle Kingdom than on their fight against other manifestations of gender discrimination.</p> Katarzyna Michalewicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 55 67 Australijsko-chiński handel towarowy w kontekście RCEP i wojny handlowej – diagnoza i perspektywy rozwoju <p>The aim of this article is to analyze changes in merchandise bilateral trade relationships between Australia and China in the years of 2000–2020. Particular attention was paid to the importance of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the trade war in response to Austalia’s call for an international inquiry into China’s handling of the coronavirus when the pandemic had become an international issue. The main purpose of this article is to diagnose and evaluate Australian-Chinese relations. The thesis was formulated as follows: the political conflict between China and Australia translates into mutual trade relations, the consequences of which are felt by both sides, but in the coming years China will still be Australia’s most important trading partner. At the same time, Australia will be looking for new markets, and China will be looking for new suppliers.</p> Sylwia Pangsy-Kania Katarzyna Kania Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 68 97 Postrzeganie zatrudnienia osób niepełnosprawnych w Chinach i Stanach Zjednoczonych <p>The concept of disability has been accompanied by controversies, stereotypes and stigmatization for years. Despite the fact that the number of people with disabilities in China and the United States is still growing, the issue of perceiving the functioning of disabled people in the society and including them to the work environment remains unsolved, notwithstanding the number of legal regulations and financial incentives in China and USA to change the employment of people with disabilities. This study compares the perception of employment of people with disabilities in China and the United States. The comparison was based on a self-conducted study among the Chinese community between February and March 2020 on a group of 121 people using the CAWI method (Computer Assisted Web Interview) and an American study: <em>A national survey of consumer attitudes towards companies that hire people with</em> <em>disabilities, </em>by G.N. Siperstein, N. Romano, A. Mohler, and R. Parker, conducted on 803 residents of the USA randomly selected for telephone interviews. The comparison took place, among others, in the assessment of the employment of disabled people by respondents in the context of other social activities in the company, as well as the satisfaction of the respondents with the results of the disabled at work. It was pointed out that in both China and the USA, previous experiences with people with disabilities may affect a more favorable approach towards employing disabled people. However, there are differences in the satisfaction with services provided by people with disabilities, as well as in trust in disabled workers, where Chinese residents have less positive attitude than their American counterparts.</p> Tomasz Bieliński Małgorzata Lewińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 98 117 Rozwój prawa japońskiego od początków państwowości Japonii do rozpoczęcia okresu Edo w 1603 r. Zarys zagadnień <p>The article outlines the most important aspects of the Japanese history and legal system until the beginning of Edo period in 1603. The work emphasizes and discusses the essential historical context and its effects on changing the Japanese legal system. This paper focuses on the specific conditions under which Japanese law was developed and on the influence of Chinese culture on the shaping of Japanese legal thought before the 17th century. The work includes the distinction of the most important legal acts and implemented changes. It is an approach to better understand Japanese law in a historical context and the development of indigenous culture, customs, and beliefs.</p> Dominik Damian Mielewczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 118 142 Ochrona zabytków archeologicznych w prawie japońskim <p>In popular perception Japan is often associated with cherry blossoms, the samurai, the geishas, rice fields and delicious ramen soup. However, each of these elements is relatively new. The country’s culture is rich and ancient, and the Japanese are very aware of their heritage and are eager to protect it. The Japanese government encourages universal public participation in supporting and appreciating artistic activities. The most important cultural goods are considered national treasures, which are particularly valuable to the world and to the Japanese nation. These can be works of art such as paintings, sculptures or architectural masterpieces, as well as other forms of artistic expression such as <em>suiseki – </em>art of artistic display of stones, <em>chadō </em>– tea ceremony, <em>ikebana </em>– flower arrangement, and even the artists themselves. The purpose of this article is to outline the Japanese heritage law with respect to protection of archaeological sites; the long history of the island nation means the Japanese archaeologists have plenty of sites to work on. Since 1945, archaeological research has become an important way of constructing the Japanese national identity. While the key goal of archeology in Japan is still about building national identity in relation to the past, there is a noticeable diversity in research goals and methodology used by the current generation of practicing archaeologists.</p> Paula Chmielowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 143 156 Intangible cultural heritage in Japan <p>W artykule przybliżono wyjątkowe zarówno w stosunku do standardów zachodnich, jak i standardów krajów postkolonialnych podejście Japonii do niematerialnego dziedzictwa kultury, szczególnie w kontekście gwarantowanego prawnie systemu ochrony oraz historycznego i współczesnego znaczenia tego dziedzictwa dla społeczeństwa. Poczynając od wprowadzenia po raz pierwszy kategorii niematerialnego dziedzictwa kultury w ustawie o ochronie dóbr kultury z 1950 r. aż po obowiązującą obecnie nowelizację z 2004 r., niematerialne dziedzictwo podlega coraz szerszej i bardziej efektywnej ochronie. Składa się na nią zarówno wsparcie finansowe ze strony państwa, jak i edukacja społeczeństwa, promocja i kultywowanie tradycji. Wszystkie te działania zapobiegają odejściu w niepamięć klasycznym umiejętnościom i dziedzinom sztuki. System ochrony w Japonii dzieli niematerialne dziedzictwo na wiele kategorii, które podkreślają zróżnicowany charakter dziedzin, w jakich przejawia się lokalna kultura i które mają zapewnione adekwatne środki prawne, odpowiadające ich szczególnym potrzebom. Starania podejmowane w celu zachowania niematerialnego dziedzictwa kultury i dbałość o nie były podyktowane potrzebą zrekonstruowania tożsamości narodowej po przegranej II wojnie światowej oraz zabezpieczenia folkloru przed postępującą globalizacją i westernizacją, obecnie zaś stanowią przejaw rosnącego zainteresowania różnorodnością kulturową.</p> Antonina Zemska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 157 167 Polityka abenomiki jako odpowiedź na problemy gospodarcze Japonii <p>The aim of the article is to present the so-called Abenomics policy and its results with regards to the economic stagnation and chronic deflation which persisted in Japan since early 1990s. Created by the new Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe and based on the reflationism theory, its goal was first and foremost to stop the deflation, but also reinvigorate demand and boost economic growth via means of structural reforms. These three objectives became known as the “three arrows” of the plan.</p> <p>The core of the program focused on the quantitative easing policy (QQE) led by the Bank of Japan, which consisted of massive purchase of bonds which would in turn raise their prices and inject money into the economy. Other measures included setting the goal of reaching 2% inflation in two years’ time, as well as enormous infrastructural investment and pension spending or numerous reforms regarding job market accessibility and deregulation. In the wake of the original plan’s middling results the Abenomics 2.0 plan was presented in 2014 and focused on Japan’s structural problems, which are rapidly aging population and shrinking workforce.</p> <p>Critical examination showed that these new goals concerning projected GDP level or fertility rate were unrealistic from the onset and did not amount to much. Despite the country leaving the long-lasting deflation behind, it did not reach the set 2% inflation mark or GDP growth on the level of comparable economies.</p> <p>Moreover, the debt level is still rising, partly because of the volume of the QQE policy. Adding to the situation is the recent economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which demanded a shift in government’s focus and caused all of the economic indicators to again worsen. Despite some successes along the way, the main goals of the Abenomics were unfulfilled during Shinzo Abe’s term of office, and Japan’s economic problems remain to be solved by the next governments.</p> Michał Przybysz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 168 186 Labor market duality in Japan: A resilience perspective <p>W ciągu ostatniej dekady pogłębiała się dychotomia japońskiego rynku pracy między „odporną” formą zatrudnienia regularnego a wysoce elastyczną, ale wrażliwą formą zatrudnienia nieregularnego. Zjawisko to, w połączeniu z wciąż aktualnymi doświadczeniami kryzysu związanego z pandemią COVID-19 oraz nieustannie dokonującą się zmianą otoczenia powodowaną rosnącym postępem technologicznym, nasuwa pytanie o trwałość tradycyjnych japońskich praktyk zatrudnienia na całe życie. W artykule poddano analizie środowisko pracy w Japonii za pomocą modelu „odporności” rynku pracy, rozszerzonego o czynnik kulturowy, który pozwala na pełniejsze zrozumienie japońskiego systemu zatrudnienia. Zdaniem autorki ostatnie koncepcje co do zmiany organizacji zatrudnienia w Japonii oraz coraz głośniej i częściej podnoszona konieczność tych zmian mogą przyczynić się do długo oczekiwanej transformacji.</p> Anna Maria Dzienis Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 187 207 Początki nowoczesnej japońskiej literatury dziecięcej <p>In Poland, despite the fact that Japanese literature is very thoroughly researched, described and translated, the section of literature dedicated to children (<em>jidōbungaku</em>), for years remained neglected and marginalized. As a result, it is an area completely undiscovered and unexplored. At the beginning of the article, the key role of education and its development in modernizing Japan is presented. Then, the literature of the first twenty years of the Meiji period (1868–1888) is outlined together with introduction of main mass-published magazines on children’s literature. Among them, it was the periodical “Shōnen sekai” that played an epochal role, so its activity and involvement in shaping the children’s literature of the Meiji period are discussed in detail. In the following chapters, the silhouette of Iwaya Sazanami is presented together with his representative work – a fairy tale (<em>otogibanashi</em>) entitled <em>Koganemaru</em> (boy’s name). This is because Koganemaru is considered the most important turning point in the difficult course of systematising children’s literature in modernizing Japan. This article, probably innovative, by examining the beginnings and the process of almost 40 years of emerging of Japanese children’s literature, will fill an important gap in the study of Japanese literature in Poland and maybe become an essential starting point for its development.</p> Marcelina de Zoete-Leśniczak Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 208 222 Osamu Tezuka w Polsce – popularność i znaczenie twórczości „boga mangi” na polskim rynku <p>The author presents and analyzes the situation of Osamu Tezuka’s manga on the Polish market in 2001–2020, trying to show the popularity and effects of the twenty-year presence of Osamu Tezuka’s work on the market. At the same time, the author presents the situation of the Polish manga market and the processes that accompanied the launch of Polish manga editions of the author, known in Japan as the God of Manga.</p> Ryszard Woszczak Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 223 234 Nadzór właścicielski nad przedsiębiorstwami z udziałem Skarbu Państwa w Korei Południowej i Singapurze w kontekście dyskusji dotyczącej reformy systemu nadzoru właścicielskiego w Polsce <p>State-owned enterprises are a part of most modern economies. Therefore, it is substantial to elaborate which model of supervision system is the most suitable for the challenges of each country. Since the 2015 there is an ongoing debate in Poland, about the shape of a stateowned enterprises supervision system. It was considered to establish a national holding company, which would perform the ownership function for Polish state-owned enterprises. An inspiration for this idea was the South Korean state-owned supervision system and the impact of the chaebols on the Korean national economy. The aim of this article it to examine Korean solutions, and to present the state-owned supervision system which function in Singapore, because in many ways it seems to be a more adequate inspiration for the needs of Polish decision-makers.</p> Dominik Aziewicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 20 235 249