Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej <p>Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej są projektem wydawniczym Centrum Studiów Azji Wschodniej Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Czasopismo naukowe jest polem do dyskusji dla przedstawicieli różnych ośrodków akademickich i różnych dziedzin wiedzy, którzy w swoich zainteresowaniach naukowych podejmują tematy dotyczące krajów Azji Wschodniej, głównie Chin, Japonii i Korei, ale też innych państw tego regionu.</p> pl-PL (Joanna Kamień) (Agnieszka Kranich-Lamczyk) Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Presidentialism and Democracy in East and Southeast Asia, ed. Marco Bünte, Mark R. Thompson, Routledge 2023, pp. 1731 Anna Michalak Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Międzynarodowe sympozjum „Alternative Cultural Globalization: from East Asia to Europe”, Université Paris Cité, Paryż, 14–16 grudnia 2022 r. Julia Trzcińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Kimono. Nieprzebrane inspiracje, Muzeum Sztuki i Techniki Japońskiej Manggha, Kraków 20 listopada 2022 r. – 10 kwietnia 2023 r. Kamil Zeidler Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Kenya Hara. Japońskie projektowanie graficzne Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu, 24 marca – 30 lipca 2023 r. Kamil Zeidler, Zofia Zeidler Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Spis treści ... ... Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Jan Rowiński (1936-2023) Kamil Zeidler, Joanna Kamień Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Księżyc jako element Kosmicznego Jedwabnego Szlaku – chińska percepcja space economy <p>The Space Economy means the entire range of actions and exploitation of resources that are of value and use to humans in the course of the exploration, understanding, management, and use of space. The article discusses the economic role of the moon in the context of the race between China and the USA for its resources and for hegemony in space. An expression of China’s growing importance in terms of technological and economic primacy in space is The Space Silk Road, the aim of which is to extend Chinese influence not just on earth. Within the framework of The Space Silk Road, priorities include areas such as quantum communication, robotics, AI, flight, and the promotion of civilian-military cooperation. The BeiDou constellation of satellites is a key aspect of the Space Silk Road. The moon is an important element in The Space Silk Road, as it is to be a point of departure for further space exploration. It also is in itself an element of the space economy because of its raw materials. China plans to establish a research station on the moon by 2030.</p> Sylwia Pangsy-Kania, Katarzyna Kania Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Powstanie i cechy palety barw Kangxi wucai 康熙五彩 oraz falangcai 珐琅彩 – spotkanie kultur a estetyka podwójnej obcości Część I: problematyka terminologii i badań nad porcelaną eksportową <p>This essay focusses on issues connected with research into the history of exported porcelain from the Far East. To this end, it discusses the literary context of the expressions “the family of roses” and “the family of greens,” and also the genesis, main features, and current terminology relating to the two most widespread techniques of glaze-painting decoration (Kangxi wucai 康熙五彩 and falangcai 珐琅彩). <br>The article discusses the most important techniques of decoration that preceded the development of the Kangxi wucai palette and the relations between technological development and the taste of the period. It also indicates the important items in Polish collections, especially in the National Museum in Gdańsk. From the holdings of this museum, the author selects a plate decorated with wild geese on Lake Taihu. An analysis of the plate – with regard to the technology of its production, aesthetics, and iconography – is the main element in the article. Polish items are presented in the context of important European collections: the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Musée Guimet, the National Museum in Oslo, and the Museo Correr in Venice. <br>The author formulates a new term in art theory: the aesthetics of double foreignness. It makes it possible to give a name to a phenomenon that develops in the process of reception and analysis of objects produced in one developed and isolated civilization, intended for and commissioned by a second civilization.</p> Agnieszka Pudlis Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Jedwabne tafty drukowane i malowane z XVIII wieku. Technologia wytwarzania na przykładzie wzorzystej tafty <p>The article concerns silk clothing fabrics with hand-painted patterns. They were fashionable in eighteenth-century Europe. The original design of these fabrics competed with silk fabrics with woven patterns. Painted silks were produced in China (for the European market) and in Europe. They were more or less in the chinoiserie style. Examples of these fabrics and costumes made of these materials have survived. The article focuses on taffeta with a painted pattern. One of the fabrics is subjected to a deeper analysis in terms of the manufacturing technique.</p> Przemysław Krystian Faryś Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ulotne obrazy słowem malowane. Tłumaczenia jueju Tang Yinga 唐英 (1682–1756) autorstwa studentów trzeciego roku sinologii Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego <p>This article aims at introducing Tang Ying (1682–1756), who is better known as the manager of the Jingdezhen manufacture than as a poet. Some of his short and expressive poems known in Chinese literature under the name of jueju 絕句 were translated by my students during our classical Chinese club sessions. Each translation is different not only because of the fact that each poem is different, but also because each of the students has his/her unique way of looking at the poems and understanding them. Poetry translation is one of the hardest tasks, as it requires not only knowledge of the language from which it is being translated, but also a unique skill in grasping a poem’s essence. Even though little is known about where and how jueju developed, the dominant theories speculate that they have their source during the Tang dynasty. They are known for their brevity and their poignant nature, which enchanted not only professional poets, but also “laymen” in this regard such as Tang Ying.</p> Amelia Macioszek Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Porównanie symboliki wierzby i lilii w chińskiej i polskiej kulturze na tle teorii językowego obrazu świata <p>The article introduces the symbolism of the willow and the lily, which have played an important role in the lives of Chinese and Poles over many years. The research issue of this article is the question: What are the differences and similarities in terms of willow and lily symbolism in Chinese and Polish culture? The article is based on an analysis of literature. It aims to indicate the symbolism of the willow and the lily and to find the roots of their differences and similarities in Chinese and Polish cultures. The first part of the article is devoted to the theory of a linguistic worldview, which is the theoretical basis of the research. The second part of the article focuses on the most important and widespread symbolisms of the willow. The third part presents the most important connotations of the lily in both cultures. I It turns out that there are many similar symbolisms of the willow in Chinese and Polish culture, such as homesickness and vitality, etc. Nevertheless, the willow is an attribute of the noble hermit in Chinese culture, while in Polish culture it symbolizes susceptibility because of its pliancy. There are also many analogies in the associations of the lily in Polish and Chinese cultures, such as purity and holiness. Contrary to appearances, in the two civilizations the differences in lily symbolism are not readily apparent.</p> Jiahao Zou Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Porównanie myśli Arystotelesa i Konfucjusza w kontekście jurysprudencji cnót <p>This article aims to study the difference between the ethical projects of Aristotle and Confucius in the context of virtue jurisprudence. In the opening, I demonstrate the current state of virtue jurisprudence, acknowledging both its historical and theoretical foundations. Additionally, an increased interest in East Asian thought in the philosophy of law is underlined as forming the basis for this article. The next two sections consist of a reconstruction of the ethics of Aristotle and Confucius, with a special focus on concepts used in both projects. In the closing parts of this article, an attempt is made to compare both Aristotle’s and Confucius’s ethics in the context of virtue jurisprudence. Finally, the article tries to show how taking a Confucian approach can resolve the issue of the foundation of judicial virtues.</p> Adrian Zaorski Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Wybrane aspekty niematerialnego i materialnego dziedzictwa konfucjanizmu w Korei Północnej <p>Celem artykułu jest omówienie niematerialnych i materialnych elementów dziedzictwa związanych z konfucjanizmem w Korei Północnej. Autor stawia tezę, że istnieje dychotomia między oficjalnym dyskursem, przywiązaniem przywódców Korei Północnej do wartości konfucjańskich a polityką wobec konfucjańskiego dziedzictwa istniejącego w Korei Północnej. Badania opierają się w dużej mierze na dokumentach północnokoreańskich. Odpowiedź na postawiony problem badawczy pozwoli określić, jakie jest miejsce konfucjanizmu w oficjalnym dyskursie i dziedzictwie kultury Korei Północnej. Autor odpowiada na pytanie, dlaczego materialne dziedzictwo konfucjańskie jest narzędziem polityki kulturowej Korei Północnej.</p> Nicolas Levi Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Koreańskie toponimy (egzonimy) w polskich książkach <p>The Korean language uses a non-Latin alphabet, which makes the transcription of proper names extremely difficult. There are official rules for the romanization of the Korean alphabet, but there are also guidelines of the Commission for the Standardization of Geographical Names outside Poland. Examining 20 different books published in Poland after 2000, I indicate the pace of implementation of the Commission’s recommendations and some general trends regarding these names. My analysis shows that names adopted earlier are already rooted in the Polish language, while the newer the Polonized name, the greater the probability that it will appear in a publication in the form of South Korean romanization. However, even 10 years after the name Pyongyang was established, books are still published in which the name is spelled P’yǒngyang.</p> Klaudia Golon Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Historyzm w myśli Ogyū Soraia <p>The article examines the thought of the Japanese Confucian philosopher Ogyū Sorai, asking whether any traces of historicism can be found in his ideas. Ogyū Sorai was a prominent early 17th-century thinker, whose considerable role in the development of Japan’s modern philosophical tradition is widely known, mostly because of how he criticized the dominant node of Neo-Confucianism that supported the Tokugawa political system. Contrary to the most common trends in analyzing Ogyū Sorai, the author focuses neither on the political or strictly philosophical aspect of his thinking, but rather on his views regarding the past and its role in shaping the future. While discussing the Japanese philosopher’s major works, such as <em>Benmei, Bendō,</em> and <em>Sorai-sensei tōmonsho</em>, the author comes to the conclusion that a historicist approach toward the flow of time can be clearly seen in Sorai’s thinking. His philosophy displays no ahistoricism nor cyclical understanding of time. This creates a strong case for further research on how Sorai’s thought facilitated the development of ideas on progress and modernization in the late Edo period of Japanese history.</p> Marek Skurski Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Kilka uwag o kotach w (nie tylko) klasycznej literaturze japońskiej na kanwie książki Anny Zalewskiej "O czarnym kocie cesarza i inne opowieści. Koty w dawnej literaturze japońskiej" <p>This article discusses Anna Zalewska’s book <em>O czarnym kocie cesarza i inne opowieści. Koty w dawnej literaturze japońskiej [On the Emperor’s Black Cat and Other Tales: Cats in Old Japanese Literature]</em> published in 2022 by the Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology in Kraków. The book is probably the first publication outside of Japan that so extensively presents Japanese felinographic topics from the perspective of literary and cultural studies. This study is an anthologized monograph, which treats cats in Japan in a cross-sectional manner (historically, genologically, semantically) up to the beginning of the Meiji period. The article emphasizes that through the stories about cats included in the book, one can also learn much about the people and the times in which they lived. Many of the literary works selected show representations of the cat that we already know, but also those that we have not yet known. This certainly enriches the way we look at these animals that live so closely with humans. The critical overview of the sources undoubtedly confirms the author’s claim set out in the preface that cats appear to be relatively common in old Japanese literature.</p> Adam Bednarczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Małżeństwa de facto w Japonii wobec wyzwań Covid-19 <p>The purpose of this article is to identify the key issues arising in relation to the existence of <em>de facto (common law, nai’en)</em> marriages in Japan. This paper will first show the broader context of the impact of the pandemic on legal-family relations in Japan. The discussion will then focus on the issue of de facto marriages, i.e. the genesis and increasing role of de facto marriages in Japan will be presented. Indeed, there have been increasing symptoms of the inclusion of informal relationships close to the marriage relationship in a legal context. The examples presented in this article provide a starting point for an analysis of the demands that have emerged in Japanese public space in relation to the specific needs of the COVID-19 pandemic era, i.e. the change of the unified spousal name system, as well as the issue of access to the partner’s medical information, and legal regulation related to parental authority.</p> Konrad Kamiński Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prawne aspekty wykorzystania dalekowschodnich sztuk walki w sytuacji przekroczenia granic obrony koniecznej w polskim prawie karnym <p>The author attempts to analyze the statutory countertype of absolute self-defence from Article 25 of the Polish Penal Code, the Act of June 6, 1997, taking into account the legal aspects of the use of martial arts skills when exceeding the borders of self-defence. He draws attention to the formation of positive values through exercises in which a trained student, using principles derived from the tradition of Far Eastern martial arts, does not seek confrontation with an unlawful, direct, and real attack, but tries to alleviate the situation before using his/her self-defence techniques. He points out that reacting in self-defence, for example, using one’s training, is not an obligation of the attacked person; it is his/her right, which is a natural right and one of the subjective human rights. This is illustrated by the legal Latin maxim that clearly states: “It is lawful to repel force with force.” This presents martial-arts practitioners as people who, through their skills, are obliged to protect life or health in the face of a threat to their own and to that of their loved ones, as well as to that of all people they can help using such a means of self-defence.</p> Karol Kloskowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pakistan – w kierunku triady jądrowej <p>Pakistan’s political history since independence has been marked by periods of political, military, and economic instability. The Kashmir conflict remains a major point of contention between Pakistan and India. Therefore, Pakistan’s main reason for building nuclear weapons was as a deterrent against Indian conventional forces and a desire to gain a leading role in the Islamic world.<br>The assessment of Pakistan’s nuclear potential is very difficult due to limited information and lack of transparency on the part of military circles. While all nuclear-weapon states generally aim to lower their capabilities, Pakistan, on the contrary, is developing its nuclear capabilities and is currently projected to have around 165 nuclear warheads. Pakistan’s nuclear policy is to have a full spectrum of nuclear weapons from tactical nuclear weapons to strategic ballistic missiles. <br>The main task of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal is deterrence. Pakistan’s nuclear doctrine is intended firstly to deter India from aggression against Pakistan and secondly to prevent India from being victorious in the event of war. The basis of the doctrine of the Pakistani armed forces is the current concept of offensive defense, which assumes conducting a counterattack, the purpose of which will be to transfer a possible armed conflict to the enemy’s territory.</p> Stanisław Zarychta Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 „Roboty w togach” i rozprawy na Wechatcie? Analiza przyczyn i sposobów wykorzystania nowych technologii w chińskim sądownictwie oraz charakterystyka zagrożeń z tym związanych <p>This article, based on a literature review, provides an analysis of the causes and applications of new technologies in the Chinese judiciary, and attempts a legal and ethical assessment of the hazards faced by both the developers as well as parties involved and court personnel. This issue is considered significant due to the growing extent of the application of increasingly sophisticated technological tools and their potential to effectively respond to the challenges encountered by the Chinese judiciary. The considerations presented lead to the conclusion that innovations applied in courtrooms contribute to the acceleration and facilitation of proceedings, address staff shortages, and have the potential to redefine established solutions in law. However, they are by no means a perfect remedy, and there are a number of dangers associated with their deployment, such as loss of autonomy by judges, algorithmic errors, technology bias, or over-reliance on technology. There is, therefore, a necessity to undertake further research into the application of modern technologies in the Chinese judiciary and to assess their effectiveness through the prism of the emerging risks they entail.</p> Katarzyna Latek Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000