Journal of Geography, Politics and Society <p><strong>Journal of Geography, Political and Society</strong> is an interdisciplinary journal which accepts articles from a broad range of widely understood social sciences (socio-economic geography, sociology, political sciences, economics, administration, public safety, cultural anthropology, demography, public health, etc.). We publish articles on the situation or changes taking place around the world, but the journal especially focuses on countries of Central Europe and the countries of the former USSR. We are trying to combine theory with practice; therefore, in addition to scientists, we also invite practitioners (local government officials, experts, etc.) to publish in our journal . We publish both issues containing a variety of themed articles and edited subject issues. Anyone interested in editing a subject issue should contact editors to submit their proposals. The entire process of reviewing and publication is totally free of charge. The author of an article does not bear any costs arising from the publication of his/her article.</p> <p>The journal is a quarterly.&nbsp;</p> en-US (assoc. prof. dr hab. Tomasz Michalski) (Agnieszka Kranich-Lamczyk) Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Impact of COVID-19 on drug markets, use, harms and drug services in Europe <p>Since early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the way we live, with European countries having to introduce unprecedented measures to protect public health. As with all areas of life, drug consumption, related harms and drug markets have been impacted, as have the drug services established to respond to drug-related problems. Since the start of the pandemic in March 2020, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction instigated three rapid assessment studies to identify the initial impact and implications of COVID-19 on drug markets, use, harms and drug services in the community and in prisons. <br>Findings from these studies revealed that the pandemic and associated health prevention measures implemented by the countries impacted drug markets and use differently depending on the different periods and events throughout the pandemic, but also according to particular drugs or user characteristics. Most drug services remained operational throughout the pandemic in order to assure continuity of care. This was achieved by innovation and adaptation of their services, especially during the different lockdown periods. <br>Thus, the results from these rapid assessments provide a glimpse into new developments in the drugs field across European countries emerging both during and in response to the pandemic, and which could have important implications for the future.</p> Alessandro Pirona, João Matias, Linda Montanari, Katerina Skarupova, Marica Ferri, Isabelle Giraudon, Jane Mounteney, Sandrine Sleiman, Katarzyna Natoniewska, Bruno Guarita, Liesbeth Vandam, Tim Surmont, Paul Griffiths Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug demand and supply in Estonia <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the world and imposed restrictions and rules that democratic countries could not have foreseen. The global health and social care system was put under enormous pressure, and preventing it from a total collapse became the primary objective. This paper looks at how the pandemic affected the illicit drug market, people who use drugs and services designed to support and help them. Based on the available studies and administrative statistics from 2019 and 2020, illicit drug use and need for services remained the same despite the pandemic. Services quickly adopted new operating rules and became available for the target group. There is ample evidence that in some cases illicit drug use (e.g. cannabis) even gained in popularity as a coping method for anxiety and stress. The drug supply fell only temporarily due to the COVID-19, to which it quickly adapted through new IT and crypto possibilities (dark web).</p> Katri Abel-Ollo, Margo Kivila, Aljona Kurbatova, Svetlana Ovsjannikova Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The COVID-19 impact on the illegal retail drugs market in Latvia and drug use patterns <p>The purpose of the study is to explore how the COVID-19 situation has affected the illegal retail market and drug use patterns. Three research questions were formulated: 1) What has been the COVID-19 impact on the retail illegal drugs market? 2) How has the pandemic impacted drug use patterns? 3) Are there trends that presumably would have an impact after COVID-19? The mixed method with an explanatory sequential design was used in the analysis. At the first stage of the analysis all available quantitative data such as routine administrative data and data from regular surveys were analysed and triangulated. The results of quantitative analysis were supplemented by qualitative data, such as reports. The analysis does not suggest changes on the retail market, except for some increase in cannabis cultivation during the first wave in 2020 and a slight decrease in MDMA prevalence on the market in 2021. Drug use patterns are similar to those before the pandemic, with some exceptions that might indicate more cannabis and MDMA use among frequent users.</p> Agnese Zīle-Veisberga Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 COVID-19 and the drug situation in Lithuania <p>The application of restrictive public health measures because of COVID-19 has affected all areas of life, including drug use, drug market, and the response of law enforcement and health, education, and social care institutions to the drug phenomenon. In Lithuania students who used psychoactive substances irregularly were more likely to reduce the use of these substances or abstained during quarantine. However, those who used these substances regularly increased the use during quarantine. The provision of harm reduction services was not interrupted, but the package of health services was reduced. There were disruptions in the number of clients entering treatment. Participation in the Early Intervention Programme in Lithuania for young people who are experimenting with alcohol or drugs increased but did not reach the pre-pandemic level. The pandemic also affected workplace-based prevention. The drug market situation remained stable, although the number of the quantities seized indicated some annual variations, caused by changes in supply and demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Evelina Pridotkienė, Rūta Gedminienė, Rasa Povilanskienė, Brigita Rašimaitė, Viktorija Stifanovičiūtė Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Has the COVID-19 pandemic changed substance use patterns, drug market and drug response in Poland? <p>The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on the prevalence of substance use. Moreover, the analysis will focus on the impact of the pandemic on the drug market and drug-related crime in Poland. The tested hypothesis assumes that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the prevalence of substance use and the related problems, and that the availability of drugs decreased. The data presented and processed for the purposes of this publication come from the monitoring of drugs and drug addiction and from different studies from 2020 to 2022. The analyses presented in the article do not show an increase in the use of psychoactive substances during the pandemic; furthermore, it is possible to indicate a decrease in the consumption of alcoholic beverages in 2020. It seems that the COVID-19 pandemic did not have a large impact on the availability and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The analysis of the drug market during the pandemic COVID-19 did not show a fall in the availability of drugs at the national level.</p> Artur Malczewski, Michał Kidawa, Małgorzata Dalmata Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug markets, prevention and treatment in Ukraine <p>This paper aims to highlight some issues, challenges and trends caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in the drug scene and the system of drug prevention in Ukraine. This article is based on the official statistics, available qualitative and quantitative studies conducted by the Institute for Psychiatry, Forensic Psychiatric Examination and Drug Monitoring of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine (Ukrainian National Focal Point), the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and Ukrainian researchers. Of course, some studies are not representative of the general population; however, they give some information on the drug scene in Ukraine during the pandemic. The data used in the article were collected mainly in 2019–2020. Every actor on the drug scene had to adapt to the new reality caused by anti-pandemic measures. Drug sellers proposed “stable work” during lockdown; drug dealers dropped ordered substances closer to the customer’s place. At the same time, OST facilities implemented home-treatment, and many private facilities appeared. OST patients misused methadone and sold it on the illicit market, while drug users started to find substitutes of their main drug and notably increased drug-related deaths.</p> Maria Bevz Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 What we know and what we do not know about the impact of COVID-19 on the drug situation and response in Central-Eastern European countries? – Introduction Artur Malczewski Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200