Argumenta Historica. Czasopismo Naukowo - Dydaktyczne 2023-10-10T11:47:26+00:00 Adrian Watkowski Open Journal Systems <p>Argumenta Historica to Czasopismo Naukowo – Dydaktyczne (nr ISSN 2353-0839) wydawane przez Naukowe Koło Doktorantów Historii Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego ( Publikują w nim zarówno przedstawiciele nauk historycznych jak i dziedzin pokrewnych np. archeologii.</p> Architektura obronna na Krecie epoki brązu i koncepcja Pax Minoica 2023-10-10T08:52:09+00:00 Dawid Borowka <p>The Pax Minoica, a concept formulated by Sir Arthur Evans was, and still is, one of the most preeminent paradigms on Minoan culture. According to this theory Crete was protected from threats by a strong and far-reaching fleet. This state of affairs was supposed to explain the lack of fortifications in Crete during the Bronze Age and the relative peace prevailing on the island itself. Since the time Evans carried out his research, numerous examples of defensive architecture have been found on the island. Among these five main types were established throughout the years – the so called Guard-Houses, Enclosure Walls, Towers/Bastions, Guard-Rooms and Modifications to Access systems.</p> <p>The so called guard-houses are the most numerous and diverse group of prehistoric defensive fortifications on Crete. They are usually situated at locations in the proximity of roads, in dominant places with a good view of the surrounding area. They were not located within human settlements or in the vicinity of other buildings. Additionally, thanks to the presence of the so-called vigilai (observation towers), they could also have a role in communicating a warning of a possible threat.</p> <p>The second most common type of defensive architecture was enclosure walls. Usually, they were made of variations of the local limestone. Very often they were built in the so-called “Cyclopean” technique. The walls were supposed to demonstrate power and to discourage potential attackers. Fortifications of smaller areas or fortified buildings were designed to deter violations of property. Of less importance, yet still with the defensive purpose were the Towers/Bastions, Guard-Rooms and Modifications to Access Systems.</p> <p>Types of structures mentioned above shed new light on our knowledge of the various stages of the development of Minoan civilization. In this article an attempt will be made to take closer look at them between EM II and MM III periods. This will allow us to verify if the alleged internal peace existed on Crete during the Bronze Age.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Karczma Słupska. Marka i jej budowa w okresie PRL 2023-10-10T09:07:00+00:00 Tomasz Częścik <p>The period of Polish People’s Republic is associated with dullness and mediocrity. It was similar in the gastronomy. The cuisine of Communism was paltry and prepared for the working masses. Gastronomy of Słupsk made one of the exceptions with its brand product of the Inns of Słupsk (Karczma Słupska). Their beginning is traced to 1969, when the first Inn called “Pod Kluką” (The Cane Inn) was opened. Its phenomenon was based on the fact that in the inn only traditional recipes were used. Also the interior design of the inns was traditional, alluding the folk or, to be more precise, Kashubian folk. The Inn was appealing to customers so much, that other places modelled on the Inn were being opened all around the country. They all were named The Inn of Słupsk (Karczma Słupska). 20 restaurants of this type were opened during Polish People’s Republic’s times. The Department of Comprehensive Implementation was responsible for their establishment and it created all restaurants from scratch. Specialists from Słupsk were carrying out the construction work of the Inn, its interior design, staff training and implementing of the menu. All these tasks were unified and certain standards applied to them. Słupsk’s gastronomy was living through its golden era in the seventies of 20th century. It was widely appreciated all over the country.</p> <p>The standard of The Inn of Słupsk created in the Department of Comprehensive Implementation did not survive through the system transformation. After the collapse of the Communism all the Inns of Słupsk started disappearing from the Polish map.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Apiturystyka, czyli co łączy pszczoły z modą na podróżowanie 2023-10-10T09:22:56+00:00 Joanna Grott <p>The article discusses the poorly described subject of apitourism, that is, tourism related to beekeeping. It presents a brief history, benefits and the most common manifestations of apitourism. The article also mentions the forest beekeeping – honey harvesting – which was once extremely popular in Poland. Although it is an interesting topic, it is still little known and explored in the culture and history of this country.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Jednostki typu B-25s przekazane przez PPDiUR „Dalmor” w Gdyni we flocie PPiUR „Koga” w Helu 2023-10-10T09:40:45+00:00 Mateusz Kubicki <p>The object of the article is to present the handing over the steel hull cutters type B-25s by the Deep-sea Fishery and Fishing Services Company “Dalmor” in Gdynia to the Fishery and Fishing Services Company “Koga” in Hel. The topic has not been the subject of research so far. The process was carried out in 1966. In the course of the process, nine vessels were transferred to fishing conglomerate, which significantly strengthened the company’s potential. Older vessels were withdrawn from service and handed over to fishing cooperatives and individual fishermen. “Dalmor” has got rid of the fleet of vessels practically intended for fishing in the Baltic Sea, focusing exclusively on deep sea fishery. On the other hand “Koga” obtained several vessels characterized by a short period of service and good technical condition, which had an impact on the further development of the company.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 „Ta forteca iest tarczą wolności Gdańszczanów”. Twierdza Wisłoujście w wybranych relacjach z XVII w. 2023-10-10T10:01:54+00:00 Radosław Kubus Marcin Szumny Maciej Badowicz <p>Wisłoujście Fortress (Mouth of Vistula Fortress) had played a significant role in the past, as a lighthouse, and guardhouse to the most important economic centre of 1st Republic of Poland (1569–1795). The garrison in the fortress was responsible for the control of ship movement in the water canal of port of Gdańsk. Furthermore, the military construction of the lighthouse was treated as a part of city’s fortification system, and Wisłoujście was a key object to defend the line of the coast from possible threat.</p> <p>The Mouth of Vistula Fortress had kept its official functions – to present the might of the city, as well as the Commonwealth. Visitations in the “guardian of the Republic’s sea coast” were a part of journeys of the nobles. The possibility of seeing “great watchtower, on which is presented the lighthouse with high quality glass covering the fire burning from four great goblets or lights, which are showing the sailors their way”, “number of canals and moats, many walls developed from the most modern military architecture art”, or “fulfilled with mouths of cannons” were astonishing memories for the guests. It referred to polish kings, nobles, and bishops as well as to ambassadors or nobles from foreign countries who were describing their memories in diaries and journals. Subject of the article was based on the diaries from 17th century which are treated by authors as the point of start for the analyze.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 „Za wolność naszą i waszą” – motywy podjęcia walki w rewolucji węgierskiej (1848–1849) przez polskich generałów 2023-10-10T10:34:32+00:00 Adam Lubocki <p>Hungarian revolution 1848–1849 is one of the most important events of the Spring of Nations period. Many Poles took part in it, which ultimately contributed to consolidating the conviction of mutual sympathy between both nations. Some of them even reached the highest positions, both military and political, constituting the decision-making core and influencing many victories. Helping the brotherly nation, however, came at a price. Actions taken by leaders, primarily Polish generals, perfectly illustrate the motives of the struggle. The motives are unambiguous and different in each of the characters discussed in the article. It is worth to analyse the information provided by Polish generals (Józef Bem, Henryk Dembiński and Józef Wysocki) in diaries written by them or people from their close environment.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 SS Castro (SS Libau, SS Aud) – nieudana dostawa broni dla powstania wielkanocnego drogą morską w 1916 r. 2023-10-10T10:48:23+00:00 Antonina Pawłowska <p>The subject of the article is the Irish-German cooperation during the Great War, which has led to the attempt to carry arms into Ireland as a part of the preparation for the Easter Rising of 1916. The analysis of the subject takes into consideration the course of discussions with the Second Reich, profiles of negotiators, successive phases of plans, the course of transport and the consequences of the failure of the mission for the fate of the insurrection. The sources for this analysis were testimonies from the collection of the Irish Bureau of Military History, memories of Karl Spindler, Report of the Royal Commission on the Rebellion in Ireland and documents of the British Department of Naval Intelligence.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Dyskusja o planowaniu na łamach „Gospodarki Planowej” w 1956 r. Przyczynek do dziejów powojennej prasy gospodarczej 2023-10-10T11:08:17+00:00 Bartosz Poświata <p>The article focuses on the discussion of the planned economy in Poland published in the pages of “Gospodarka Planowa” in 1956. Its participants criticized previous management methods and proposed new ones, but not intending to return to capitalism.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Ludność powiatu łaskiego w latach trzydziestych XX w. w świetle materiałów łódzkiego Wydziału Statystycznego 2023-10-10T11:16:17+00:00 Arkadiusz Rzepkowski <p>So far the demographic and historical researches focused on the whole country, individual cities or parishes. There should be also proceed similar researches in reference to provinces or administrative districts. The present article concerns the state of population and its structure in Łask administrative district in the thirties 20th century. J. Śmiałowski and B. Wachowska have already written about numerical population status in Łask and the structure of its inhabitants.</p> <p>The materials left by Łódź Statistics Department contain the data relating to the following: state of population in the past, migration movement, natural movement between 1932–1938. The materials also describe the area of the whole administrative district, Pabianice and Łask as well as individual municipality in 1938 according to its age structure, denominational structure and social-professional one. These data are the result of statistical investigations led on the area of several districts of Łódź Voivodeship in the thirties 20th century.</p> <p>After the world war I Łask district belonged to the voivodeship which was one of larger social joints of Jewish and German population. The district included the town of Pabianice which was a significant centre of textile production. That fact had influence on social and professional structure of Łódź district inhabitants.</p> <p>In thirties there was a constant growth of population of Łask district. Minor owners were the largest social group (mostly they were cotters, craftsmen and minor tradesfolks). The large numer of inhabitants of the district was employed in industry. The large influence on the denominational structure of Łask district had the fact of coexistence of Pabianice – a significant multicultural industrial centre, which included a considerable group of Jewish, a certain number of Protestants and a large number of Germans in other regions of Łask district too.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Projekt unii bułgarsko-jugosłowiańskiej po drugiej wojnie światowej: przyczynek do badań 2023-10-10T11:27:59+00:00 Katarzyna Skała <p>The project of close cooperation between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia was already born during World War II. After this conflict, the relations between the governments of both countries became even closer. Although the formalization of the political and economic union seemed to be a matter of time, it turned out that each side had its own vision of this cooperation. In addition, the negotiations were controlled by Stalin, who saw a threat to the position of the Soviet Union in this kind of agreement. The article is a synthetic review of the most important stages of the Bulgarian-Yugoslav union concept and, ultimately, the collapse of this project.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Tryptyk z Almazán. Uwagi na temat nowo odkrytego dzieła Hansa Memlinga 2023-10-10T11:36:50+00:00 Aleksandra Stanek <p>In 2003 in a Spanish town of Almazán, a long time forgotten pieces of art of Hans Memling have been discovered, examined and described by prof. Anna Muntada Torrellas of Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. The authorship of the paintings has been confirmed by Spanish and Belgian experts in history of art.</p> <p>The article briefly presents available information concerning the work of art, it’s condition and iconography. Analysis based on comparison of the Triptych of Almazán with earlier works of the artist helps to follow the attribution process and suggests the probable iconography of the lost, central table of the triptych. Furthermore it unveils possible reasons of its appearance in Castile in 1490. The wings of the triptych remained uninterrupted in Almazán until today leaving the 11th century city walls only twice: to attend the annual exhibition of the cultural heritage of Castile-León region (2009) and to take part in the monographic Memling’s exhibition at the Scuderie del Quirinale in Rome at the turn of 2014 and 2015.</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Kim byli piraci wód greckich? Wątpliwa tożsamość lestai na podstawie wybranych antycznych źródeł 2023-10-10T11:47:26+00:00 Artur Turowski <p>Ancient pirates were mentioned many times by ancient historiographers and writers. They often contributed to the victories in many conflicts. But can we call them pirates for sure? This article is an attempt to answer the question: who were pirates of Greek waters in antiquity?</p> 2019-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023