Beyond Philology An International Journal of Linguistics, Literary Studies and English Language Teaching <p>Beyond Philology is an international journal of linguistics, literary studies and language acquisition. We publish articles, reviews, reports and interviews. The language of the journal is English. Papers are placed in the following sections: Linguistics Literary Studies Translation Culture Language Acquisition Academic Teaching Reviews Reports Interviews The papers in the Linguistics section concern the English language as well as Polish, the Celtic languages and others. Papers in the Literary Studies section concentrate on prose, poetry and drama of authors representing different English-speaking countries. The Language Acquisition section contains papers on teaching and learning foreign languages, mainly English. Beyond Philology publishes papers not only in the field of English Studies. The contributors include experienced scholars as well as doctoral students.</p> Uniwersytet Gdański en-US Beyond Philology An International Journal of Linguistics, Literary Studies and English Language Teaching 1732-1220 Introduction <p style="text-align: justify;">Translation studies is a diverse field of research with an interest in any translatorial activity from the translation of poetry to localization, from interpreting to subtitling. Thanks to its dynamic development, the discipline now has its own specific range of research methods and unique ways of theorizing translation and interpreting.</p> Wioleta Karwacka Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 7 9 Evidence of cognitive effort in simultaneous interpreting: Process versus product data <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study aims at measuring the level of correspondence between the problems related to increased cognitive effort reported by simultaneous interpreting trainees in their retrospective verbal protocols and problems indicators identified in the target texts. The study triangulates process analysis (retrospective protocols) with product analysis (manual comparison of source and target texts). The corpus of the study consists of about 75 hours of recordings of 240 interpreting outputs and the recordings of 5,005 retrospective comments. The results imply that that increased cognitive load involved in simultaneous interpreting and the resulting cognitive effort experienced by trainee interpreters is not always manifested in the product.</p> Ewa Gumul Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 11 45 10.26881/bp.2019.4.01 Style of religious texts as a potential hindrance in interpreter training <p style="text-align: justify;">According to the thematic progression model of Janikowski (2011) religious texts can be used at the early stages of interpreter training. The reservations against such placement of allegedly stylistically sophisticated texts are scrutinised in the following paper by means of (1) developing a set of features of spoken religious discourse and (2) empirically testing their frequency in a convenience corpus. The results do show an unexpectedly high level of metaphorical saturation of spoken religious texts (1.4 per minute of speech), but they also show that only 8% of these metaphors were unconventional and that speakers sometimes employed special means of facilitating metaphor processing. Additionally, the appearance of other markers traditionally recognised as elements of religious style (intertextual allusions, markers of higher register and other figures of speech) was only marginal. Thus, the results support the use of religious texts as the second stage in thematic development, however, with a set of recommendations.</p> Przemysław Janikowski Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 47 67 10.26881/bp.2019.4.02 Method of measuring the effort related to post-editing machine translated outputs produced in the English>Polish language pair by Google, Microsoft and DeepL MT engines: A pilot study <p style="text-align: justify;">This article presents the methodology and results of a pilot study concerning the impact of three popular and widely accessible machine translation engines (developed by Google, Microsoft and DeepL companies) on the pace of post-editing work and on the general effort related to post-editing of raw MT outputs. Fourteen volunteers were asked to translate and post-edit two source texts of similar characters and levels of complexity. The results of their work were collected and compared to develop a set of quantitative and qualitative data, which was later used to make assumptions related to the general rate of postediting work and the quality of the post-edited sentences produced by the subjects. The aim of the pilot study described below was to determine whether the applied method can be successfully used in more profound studies on the quality and impact of machine translation in the English-&gt;Polish language pair and on the potential of MT solutions on the Polish translation market.</p> Maciej Kur Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 69 99 10.26881/bp.2019.4.03 Game localization pitfalls: Translation and multitextuality <p>From the translator’s perspective multitextuality is one of the major challenges of video games localization. The translator needs to cope with texts spanning from the most standard, such as error messages, to the most creative, for example poems. Although every game is unique, it is possible to observe some commonalities with respect to textual genres and text types in video games. Various text types play diverse functions, their content is outstandingly multifarious and they include both standard and creative style and terminology. All of this leads to an assertion that they call for different translation approaches: a standard approach, a creative approach or a mixed approach.</p> Ewa B. Nawrocka Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 101 128 10.26881/bp.2019.4.04 Game localization pitfalls: Translating variables and gender <p style="text-align: justify;">Variables and gender constitute game localization pitfalls due to the fact that games are interactive entertainment software and contain dynamically generated content. Variables pose a problem in languages (such as Polish) which use inflection (conjugation and declination). Gender is an issue as the player, the characters the player creates, and the characters the player encounters in the game world can be male or female. Gender neutrality is a requirement not only in all messages directed to the player but also in plot related texts such as dialogs and journals. The present article seeks to investigate the subject of variables and gender in order to determine some strategies for dealing with these pitfalls.</p> Ewa B. Nawrocka Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 129 155 10.26881/bp.2019.4.05 Problems in medical translation among professional and non-professional translators: Collocations as a key issue <p style="text-align: justify;">English is currently the lingua franca in medicine, especially due to the development of new terms that combine the medical field with technical areas. The aim of this study is to compare the problems encountered by professional and non-professional translators (physicians) with special attention paid to collocations. Further valuable observations and comments are also added by the respondents. The paper discusses the key position of collocations in the medical register in which the erroneous use of collocations discredits the paper and the researcher, thus hindering the dissemination of medical knowledge. Additionally, some other problematic issues are also highlighted. The author postulates further collocation-related empirical studies with attention paid to the phenomena of both teaching collocations and assessing the competence of the translator in the domain of collocations.</p> Arkadiusz Badziński Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 157 177 10.26881/bp.2019.4.06 Young adult literature in translation: The state of research <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of the article is to examine the concept of young adult literature, provide its historical timeframe, identify its key components, and, finally, discuss young adult literature in translation by presenting the state of research on the topic. After analysing the concept of a young adult, the article moves on to provide a brief summary of adolescent fiction’s history, concluding that J. D. Salinger’s <em>The Catcher in the Rye</em> and S. E. Hinton’s <em>The Outsiders</em> largely contributed to the recognition of the genre. The paper mentions characteristic style choices employed by the authors of young adult fiction, the most prominent being the blend of registers or ‘code-switching’ between teen and adult speech, as acknowledged by Penelope Eckert and Chuck Wendig. Code-switching constitutes one of the main translation problems and is discussed at large in two compelling papers on the topic of young adult literature translation, namely <em>Translating Young Adult Literature. The High Circulation Rate of Youth Language and Other Related Translation Problems in “The Catcher in the Rye” and “The Outsiders” by Saskia Tempert and Translating Young Adult Literature: Problems and Strategies. John Green`s “An Abundance of Katherines” </em>by Loana Griguta. Both dissertations analyse the language of adolescent novels (in the twentieth and the twenty first century) and devise a list of strategies dedicated to adequately rendering English source versions into Dutch and Romanian, respectively. These writings indicate a growing interest in the field of young adult literature translation. The article expresses the hope that more scholars will elaborate on the topic.</p> Kaja Makowska Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 179 194 10.26881/bp.2019.4.07 Dialectically-marked proper nouns in audiovisual translation: An analysis of the English subtitles to "The Peasants" <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this article is to analyze translation techniques used in the film translation of dialectically-marked proper names. Undoubtedly, the issue of rendering dialectical varieties constitutes one of the greatest challenges in interlingual translation. The applicable translation techniques, however, are frequently in conflict with the rules of reducing audiovisual target text to an indispensable minimum. The research material consists of the English subtitles to <em>The Peasants</em> (<em>Chłopi</em>, dir. Jan Rybkowski, Telewizja Polska S.A. 1973; English translation by Agata Deka, PolArt Video 2006). This article outlines the main theoretical approaches and translation techniques which can be used in the cases of dialects, proper names, and audiovisual translation. The research part aims at verifying the hypothesis’s claim that these translation methods which require implementation of more complex procedures than, for instance, omission (e.g. replacing the source language dialect with a target text variation) are not applicable in the case of audiovisual translation. The conclusion consists of the outline of the main translation tendencies as well as the verification of the aforementioned hypothesis.</p> Anna Dudek Copyright (c) 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 16/4 195 225 10.26881/bp.2019.4.08