Beyond Philology An International Journal of Linguistics, Literary Studies and English Language Teaching <p>Beyond Philology is an international journal of linguistics, literary studies and language acquisition. We publish articles, reviews, reports and interviews. The language of the journal is English. Papers are placed in the following sections: Linguistics Literary Studies Translation Culture Language Acquisition Academic Teaching Reviews Reports Interviews The papers in the Linguistics section concern the English language as well as Polish, the Celtic languages and others. Papers in the Literary Studies section concentrate on prose, poetry and drama of authors representing different English-speaking countries. The Language Acquisition section contains papers on teaching and learning foreign languages, mainly English. Beyond Philology publishes papers not only in the field of English Studies. The contributors include experienced scholars as well as doctoral students.</p> en-US (Danuta Stanulewicz) (Agnieszka Kranich-Lamczyk) Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 The strategies of seeing differently in Kathleen Jamie’s travel writing: 'Findings' and 'Sightlines' <p style="text-align: justify;">This article looks at the narrative techniques employed in two collections of creative non-fiction essays by the Scottish writer and poet, Kathleen Jamie. In <em>Findings</em> (2005) and <em>Sightlines</em> (2012) the narrator uses the theme of travel as a platform for expressing the liminality of natural and cultural zones. At the same time, the concept of motion and the boundless travel experience are often turned into their diminutive forms. In order to transgress the dual notions of outside/inside, human/nonhuman and the visible/unseen, Jamie employs a number of visual strategies. She introduces experimental methods of observation to free perception from the constraints of the dogmatic predictions which emerge from the automatization of sight. Jamie exposes our own illusions of what “natural” is or where exactly “nature” resides, prompting us to rethink our own position in the system. In this she often demonstrates the ethical environmental agenda of contemporary Scottish writers and exposes the intrusion of globalism into parochial zones.</p> Anna Dziok-Łazarecka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The demotic tongue of mateship in Australian Great War literature: The vernacular humourist <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper looks at the demotic tongue of mateship in Australian Great War Literature as a theme of cognition and understanding in the literary texts and texts of culture. The language, like the Australian, was filled with character and a sense of the larrikin. It seemed irreverent at times, even rude in some circles, but it was much more than its immediate sound or inference; it was the natural verbal essence of the Australian mind – honest, loyal, dutiful and humorous. These characteristics are cornerstones of Australian mateship, a type of friendship that would be there beyond the bitter end, rival the love of a woman and even the protection of one’s own life. For some Australians, poetry was merely an extension of this language, as language was merely an extension of friendship. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the Australian use of humour and language in the setting of Great War poetry. It looks at the demotic tongue of mateship, specifically what is known as the Great Australian Adjective (bloody), along with several other examples of vernacular language, in Australian Great War Literature, and considers this by referring to the common language of the Australian poet from the time. It will consider the notion that Australian writers of the Great War era may have been misunderstood as a result of their language, leading to critical mistakes about a poem’s literary worth, a poet’s seriousness as a poet and a nation’s literary value.</p> Dominic P. G. Sheridan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The strange case of Francis Dolarhyde and the Dragon: Alternating narrative points of view and the source of knowledge in Thomas Harris’ 'Red Dragon' <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper investigates the narrative voice employed by Thomas Harris in <em>Red Dragon </em>as a source of knowledge about the fictional universe, more particularly about the main villain, Francis Dolarhyde. Confronting important epistemological notions (knowledge, justification and their sources) with literary theoretical concepts (narrative voice and points of view), I analyse alternating modes of representation. Harris’ narrator shifts between three modes: the quasi-perceptual one – sense-based, rich in descriptive elements; the quasi-introspective narration carried out from a close subjective angle, using free indirect speech or stream of consciousness; and the testimonial mode – telling (rather than showing) the story through exposition resting on the principle of cause and effect. Employing a vast array of inter-textual pragmatics, the narrative remains ambiguous. In consequence, any proposition about Dolarhyde can be empirically and rationally challenged and all propositional knowledge regarding the character is merely fragmentary.</p> Justyna Stiepanow ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Theatre as a means of countering resurgent nationalism and racism in the 21st century: Seth Baumrin’s work in Europe <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper describes how two European theatre groups, Subpoetics and Gershom, led by an American director, Seth Baumrin, use artistic tools to bring about political and social change. Their creative projects are aimed at combating nationalism and racism, while building a more open and more humane society, based on the dignity and self-respect of the individual, which are considered a necessary precondition of respect for others. The article testifies to the transformative power of the workshops and performances that Baumrin and his associates offer the European public, and the author supports her observations with well-established theories from the area of theatre studies and psychology. As up until now no other academic papers have been published on the subject, a large share of the information included in this article comes from primary sources such as interviews, informal conversations and direct observation.</p> Ewelina Topolska ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Decoding visual and acoustic signals: Epistemological uncertainty in Tom Stoppard’s 'After Magritte' and 'Artist Descending a Staircase' <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper discusses two plays of Tom Stoppard, <em>After Magritte </em>and <em>Artist Descending a Staircase, </em>from the perspective of the uncertainty pertaining to the possibility of perceiving and adequately describing the reality. The plays employ intertextual references to two modern painters whose names are included in the titles of the dramas and who are known to have experimented in their artistic ventures. In two series of pictures, <em>The Key of Dreams </em>and <em>The Use of Words</em>, Ma-gritte dealt with the difficulties connected with representing reality in pictorial and linguistic terms, while Beauchamp tried to present not only three dimensionality but also movement on the two dimensional canvas. Apart from referring to art, Stoppard’s pieces are also a kind of who-done-it, with each of them trying to solve a mystery. <em>After Magritte </em>discloses the solution of the identity of the strange figure the characters saw in the street and also logically explains the strange opening and closing stage images. Being a radio play, <em>Artist Descend-ing a Staircase, </em>teaches the audience to decode aural signals and demonstrates that, similar to objects of visual perception, they may be decoded in different ways. The two dramas discussed thus deal with the relative quality of reality, whose perception and description depends on individual sensitivity of a concrete person.</p> Jadwiga Uchman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Truth and meaning in the maze of irony: A glance at Muriel Spark’s fiction <p style="text-align: justify;">The article addresses the issue of truth and its treatment in the fiction of Muriel Spark (1918–2006), who with her first novel, <em>The Com-forters</em>, made her name as a distinctly post-modern novelist. The publication of <em>The Comforters </em>coincided with her conversion to Roman Catholicism, and Spark was explicit about the vital influence which her newly-embraced religion had upon her becoming a writer of fiction. The major point in the following argument is Spark’s overt declaration that her writing of novels, which she defines in terms of lies, represents her quest for absolute truth. This apparently para-doxical admission is reflected in Spark’s creative output, which combines most unlikely features: postmodernist leanings, commitment to religious belief and a deep-seated conviction on the part of the author about the irrefutable validity of absolute truth. The article focuses mainly on two of Spark’s novels: <em>The Only Problem </em>and <em>Symposium</em>, which demonstrate the postmodernist perspective with its in-sistence on the relativity of truth or its outright negation in the form of the concept of “post-truth”. The presented analysis shows how Spark’s narratives pursue truth across the multiplicity of continually undermined meanings jointly generated by the text and the reader as its recipient. The discussion emphasises the irony which Muriel Spark proposes as the most effective strategy for getting an inkling of absolute truth, which remains for Spark a solid though evasive value, hidden under the multiplicity of meanings.</p> Anna Walczuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 American Indian epistemology in Deborah A. Miranda’s 'Bad Indians: A Tribal Memoir' <p style="text-align: justify;">The essay proposes that Deborah A. Miranda’s <em>Bad Indians: A Tribal Memoir </em>(2013) is a work animated by the principles of American Indian epistemology. First, a model of Native philosophy is outlined after Native philosopher Thomas Norton-Smith. Secondly, four dimensions of Miranda’s work – its ethical and procedural purpose, generic location, metalinguistic strategy, narrative as a vehicle of knowledge – are analyzed in the light of Norton-Smith, Roland Barthes, California historians, American Indian literary studies, decolonial theory, and auto-ethnography. In conclusion, it is posited that Miranda’s story is an animated entity enacting ontological, intersubjective, historical difference, and that it intervenes into the genre of memoir/autobiography.</p> Grzegorz Welizarowicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The eye looks back: Seeing and being seen from William Bartram to H.P. Lovecraft <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper focuses on the sense of sight and seeing in the selected texts of American literature from the late 18th century to the 1930s, i.e. from William Bartram to H. P. Lovecraft. Adopting a perspective of changing “scopic regimes” – conventions of visual perception presented in a number of literary and non-literary works, the author analyzed a passage from Bartram’s <em>Travels </em>to reveal a combination of the discourse of science with that of the British aesthetics of gardening. In Margaret Fuller’s <em>Summer on the Lakes </em>(1843) the main factor is the work of imagination dissatisfied with the actual view of Niagara Falls, while in Ralph Waldo Emerson’s <em>Nature </em>substantial subjectivity is reduced to pure seeing. In Henry David Thoreau’s essay “Ktaadn” the subject confronts nature that is no longer transparent and turns out meaningless. In American literature of horror from Charles Brockden Brown through Edgar Allan Poe and H. P. Lovecraft, the narrator’s eye encounters the inhuman gaze of a predator, a dehumanized victim of murder, or a sinister creature from the out-er space. To conclude, the human gaze was gradually losing its ability to frame or penetrate nature, bound to confront the annihilating evil eye from which there was usually no escape.</p> Marek Wilczyński ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100