European Journal of Tranformation Studies https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation <p>The European Journal of Transformation Studies is a result of cooperation between scholars from Central and Eastern Europe. It focuses on social, cultural, political and economic issues which are important for this part of Europe, however topics presented in the journal concern also other themes, e.g. global crisis or terrorism. Some issues have a mono-thematic character, e.g. aforementioned global crisis, conflict in Ukraine as well as social perception of the nuclear energy. The journal was established in 2013. Publishing activity is based on social work of editors and reviewers. We created an international platform of exchange of opinions and ideas which engaged representatives of various disciplines from social sciences and humanities derived from different countries.</p> ‘Europe Our House’, Research Institute for European Policy, University of Gdansk, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Trnava en-US European Journal of Tranformation Studies 2298-0997 Crisis Management in the Era of the Global Network. The Case of Qatari responsive Policy vs. the Antiterror Quartet Sanctions https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5557 <p>Crisis management and the global network were the two fundamental methods that Qatar has used to avoid and mitigate the negative impact of sanctions imposed by the so-called Anti-Terror Quartet states (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt). They have also served in the process of recovery of security after the internal crisis. The research objective of the article is the presentation of Qatar’s anti-sanction policy, one based on these two remedies (crisis management and global network) that turned out to be successful and as such may become a model useful for other states that face a similar threat.</p> Adriana Łukaszewicz Wojciech Grabowski Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 7 22 Safe Havens for Global Jihadi Movements https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5558 <p>The issue of terrorist safe havens has been dealt with since 9/11 when al-Qaeda attacked the US from its sanctuary in Afghanistan. However, until now there have been only few attempts to elaborate an analytical framework to identify areas that could transform into terrorist safe havens. Moreover, this issue is particularly important in the era when the so-called ISIS has been physically defeated, however, its ideology remains, hence there is a potential risk of its physical re-emergence in a new sanctuary. Thus, the aim of this article is to define safe havens for global jihadi movements by a set of criteria that make a certain area more attractive and vulnerable to the exploitation by jihadists. All criteria were identified after a rigorous study of the establishment of al-Qaeda in Afghanistan as well as its failure to establish itself in Somalia in the 1990s. The provided toolbox consists of three categories of criteria and sub-criteria whose interplay conditions a successful establishment of a global jihadi movement within a particular area. A quantitative analysis of every factor will enable to identify areas that are the most vulnerable and could potentially become the jihadist sanctuaries.</p> Dominika Kosárová Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 23 50 Determinants of Ethnic Pride among New Zealand’s Polish Immigrants https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5559 <p>The survey research and respondent interviews described in this article were conducted in late 2019/early 2020 to assess the determinants of Polish identity among first and second-generation New Zealand born individuals of Polish descendant -- the generation first born in New Zealand whose parent(s) was/were born in Poland or the second generation born in New Zealand whose grandparent(s) was/were born in Poland and whose parent(s) was/were born in New Zealand. Many of these individuals were related to the Polish child refugees that came to New Zealand in 1944. The article begins with a brief literature review on the subject. This is followed by a description of the research methods used, findings that pertain to a target audience, and a strategy for promoting Polish identity with this target audience. This strategy should prove useful to Polish cultural organizations in New Zealand (and perhaps elsewhere) in their efforts to develop programming that successfully promotes Polish identity with their audiences.</p> Renata Vickrey Ben Tyson Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 51 68 High-Skilled Migration - a Challenge for Poland’s Policy on the Diaspora https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5560 <p>In the knowledge-based economy, a high level of human capital is often perceived as one of the important factors conditioning economic development and social well-being. Poland, however, is one of the countries that experience a huge problem both in retaining highly qualified people in the country and obtaining them from abroad. In such a situation, the possible solution may lie in the involvement of the Polish diaspora and its inclusion in the socio-economic life of Poland. The paper demonstrates that in shaping Polish policy towards the diaspora in the field of human capital transfer, priority should be given to solutions functioning under the diaspora option model, not the return option model. In activities directed at diaspora members well-equipped with human capital, the Polish state should focus on their networking within industry and professional groups as well as building infrastructure fostering the establishment and development of relations. This is confirmed by the results of the project “E-migration - Polish Technological Diaspora”, implemented by the Emigration Museum in Gdynia and the PLUGin Foundation in 2018-2019.</p> Rafał Raczyński Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 69 88 Transformation of Education and Training System in the Context of Digital Information and Communication Technology in Sociocultural Perspective and Its Axiological and Ethical Dimension https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5561 <p>This article focuses on transformation of education and training system in the context of digital information and communication technology in sociocultural perspective. Its goal is first to analyse the reinterpretation of the concept of education and training system and its sociocultural aspect within this transformation and identify specificities of digital (global) education and training system. Secondly, we want to identify the sociocultural risks and moral problems in axiological and ethical perspective and find the moral-value requirements. The author states that throughout digital transformation of education and training system (which is a collaborative and participative process), we need to regulate also its axiological and ethical aspect of the form and content. The author believes that the associated risk that endanger the desired outcome introduce the need to raise ethical questions that regard digital information and communications in the process of education. Further, she points out that they include also sociocultural requirements of moral human creativity and its introduction into the education and training system by responsible and approved entities. Lastly, she also points out that today we are speaking about sociocultural requirement to incorporate moral-value aspects into education and training process within the whole society and use these aspects in a proper and safe manner. This specifically includes shaping and development of personality thought media education that is based on moral values, with the intention to improve digital literacy as conditio sine qua non in our personal and social life.</p> Sabína Gáliková Tolnaiová Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 89 105 The Recast Civil Procedure and Legacy of Franz Klein in the Slovak Republic https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5562 <p>The year 2016 witnessed the completion of a next chapter in the history of civil procedure in the Slovak Republic. As of 1 July 2016, three new procedural codes entered into force, replacing the previously applicable Civil Procedure Code of 1963. The ambition of the legislator was primarily to (re-)build the civil judicial procedure on solid theoretical principles and mainly on the basis of so-called social conception of procedural law, as advocated in Central European tradition in particular by Franz Klein, author of the Austrian Civil Procedure Code of the late 19th century. Major events such as recasting of procedural codes certainly represent an opportunity to look back and to assess the overall continuity or discontinuity of the legal regulation being (re-) codified. This is also the case with the recast civil procedure in the Slovak Republic.</p> Marek Števček Tomáš Gábriš Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 106 133 Designing Public Policy in Ukraine and in Poland in Conditions of Political System Transformation https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5563 <p>The article aims to prove that the state should moderate the process of designing “top-down” public policy. The authors analyse the “top-down” state design of public policies of Poland and Ukraine, define public policy development stages in conditions of political system transformation. The authors use comparative method to analyse global indicators, which show the development level of public policy institutions. The article concludes that unlike Ukraine, the key public policy actors of Poland managed to make the necessary decisions at the initial stage of its transformation and, according to the indicators and observation, Poland boasts a more developed public policy.</p> Olena Chaltseva Tetyana Neprytska Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 134 147 Overview of Perception of Global Topics by Students of Economic and Education Study Programmes from Selected Countries https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5564 <p>The aim of the survey was to find out if there is a difference in the perception of relevance of the global issues to the study fields by the students of economics and education in five countries (Ireland, Canada, the Great Britain, Kenya, and Slovakia). We used an online questionnaire developed within the project called Ethical Internationalism in Higher Education Research Project. The answers were analysed in the programme Statistica 12. We found the difference in the perception of global topics between the students of business and the students of education. The results will be used to innovate the study programmes at the individual faculties.</p> Igor Gallay Zuzana Gallayová Darina Veverková Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 148 177 Cleavage-Theory from the Perspective of Political Linguistics https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5565 <p>In this article, we try to explain the formation of the language of the Slovak political elite through sociological-political cleavage-theory. With this interdisciplinary approach, we want to prove that the individual cleavages that have influenced the formation of political parties and the party system in Slovakia after 1989 can also be identified on the basis of a content analysis of lexical units characteristic of political discourse in a certain period. First of all, we explain how cleavage-theory was discussed in analyzing the transformation of post-communist party systems in academic discourse. Consequently, we find that all the important cleavages of the 1990s were characterized by a certain political vocabulary. Individual expressions dominated in a certain period, which was characterized by tensions between the two opinion camps. After ceasing to exist a certain cleavages, the identified lexical units either disappeared from the political elite’s communication, or were marginalized, and now appear only as residues of overcome tension.</p> Radoslav Štefančík Eva Stradiotová Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 178 197 Recent Trends in Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions in Ukraine and Poland https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5566 <p>This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in organizing a system of state financial control, as well as policy issues concerning functioning the supreme audit institutions (SAI) in the Republic of Poland and Ukraine. The authors highlight the evolution of the framework within cooperation on auditing between Ukraine and the Republic of Poland in the field of public financial control (audit). The paper is aimed at investigating current practice of organizing supreme audit control in the Republic of Poland and in determining recent trends in developing the cooperation between the States in public financial control area. Moreover, the recommendations proposed are aimed at proper organizing of the external public financial control (audit) on the basis of International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions standards and methods, as well as exchange of the EU best practices in external control and public financial audit, paying particular attention to the independence of the relevant state bodies.</p> Valeriia Riadinska Alla Nesterenko Yuliia Kostenko Ella Derkach Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 198 209 Behavioural Approaches to Tax Collection: the Case of Slovakia https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5567 <p>Research studies demonstrate respect for the normative approaches to paying taxes, but they are extended by behavioural aspects affecting the tax liability of the taxpayer. A taxpayer’s decision to pay the tax is influenced, for example, by the social environment in which the entity operates, the moral standards of a group affecting attitude of the taxpayer to paying taxes, the degree of tolerance to tax evasion and to combating corruption, and so on. This confirms the relevance of both repressive as well as preventive state measures to collect taxes and eliminate tax evasion and fraud. The effective tax collection can be rather achieved by building mutual trust between the taxpayer and tax administrator using targeted instruments aimed at the voluntary payment of taxes on time and in the correct amount. On the basis of the questionnaire survey, the aim of the paper is to find out, analyse and evaluate the attitudes of the respondents to the effectiveness of tax audits in Slovakia, to the adjustment of the income tax base by means of legal or illegal instruments, as well as their attitudes towards fraud on VAT. The analysis of respondents’ attitudes regarding the illegal treatment of income tax and VAT pointed to relatively high tax discipline of taxpayers. The respondents expressed a different opinion on the effectiveness of tax audits in Slovakia. In their view, tax audits reveal to a lesser extent the illegal activity of taxpayers. Especially this knowledge highlights the importance of building a fair relationship between the taxpayers and tax administrator using some of the behavioural approaches outlined in the paper.</p> Anna Schultzová Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 210 221 Features and Models of Spanish and Polish Democratic Transitions: Modern Interpretations, Experience and Lessons for Ukraine https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5568 <p>The article analyses systematic, historical and comparative approaches to the preconditions, progress and positive results of democratic transitions in Spain and Poland and outlines the possibilities and recommendations for the Ukrainian community for creative utilizations of the experience and lessons of transitive practice in Spain and Poland. The starting points of these countries in the run-up to the transition to democracy, the causes and factors that led to peace, through negotiations and pacts, and the democratic transformation of Spanish and Polish societies, are examined. The reasons for Ukraine’s systemic lagging behind in implementing a full-fledged systematic democratic transition are summarized and systematized in a comparative way.</p> Olga Ivanytska Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 222 230 Trade Elasticities in the Slovak Republic https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5569 <p>Slovakia as the small and very open economy with relatively limited scope of domestic market, insufficient raw materials and low agricultural potential is predestined for a further development of international trade and relations. One of the most important issues in open economies is to determine the effects of income and relative prices on the international trade. The purpose of this paper is the estimation of the price and income elasticities of the international trade in the case of the Slovak Republic. We use panel data regression for the Slovak economy in the period 1995–2018 for estimation import and export demand functions. Furthermore, these elasticities are re-estimated for different sub-periods in order to verify whether they are stable over time or they are changing with respect on the type of the exchange rate mechanism and adopting the euro by the Slovak Republic. We suppose that the income export elasticity will be high and the price elasticities will be low due to the participation of the Slovak Republic in the Eurozone and the high share of the EMU countries in the Slovak trade.</p> Zuzana Brinčíková Ľubomír Darmo Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 231 244 Specifics of Decentralization Reform in Poland and Ukraine https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/journal-transformation/article/view/5570 <p>The article identifies features of decentralization reforms in Ukraine and Poland. Starting conditions of the preparedness of Polish and Ukrainian society on the verge of reform have been studied. The Ukrainian-Polish relations in the process of implementation of the reform in Ukraine have been investigated. Namely the expert environment responsible for the implementation of the Polish decentralization model has been identified. The common features of decentralization reform for Ukraine and Poland are identified which are in the same three-tier system (oblast - voivodeship, rayon – povit, hromada – gmina). The basis for decentralization reform in Poland was gmina, as a basic unit that includes one or more settlements, and the territorial basis for realization of local self-government by residents of settlements. For Ukraine, such units are united territorial communities, which creation have not yet been completed.</p> Yulia Okunovska Andrii Hyzhko Mykola Prymush Mykola Polovyi Copyright (c) 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 8 2 245 256