Panoptikum 2020-09-02T14:36:58+02:00 dr Grażyna Świętochowska Open Journal Systems <p>„Panoptikum” to wydawany przez Uniwersytet Gdański półrocznik poświęcony kulturze audiowizualnej. Na jego łamach publikowane są zarówno oryginalne artykuły w zainicjowanym przez redakcję monograficznym kluczu tematycznym, jak i wiodące tłumaczenia z zakresu filmoznawstwa, nowych mediów oraz sztuk wizualnych.</p> Introduction 2020-09-02T14:36:58+02:00 Monika Talarczyk 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Women’s Place in Film History: the Importance of Continuity 2020-08-26T08:41:28+02:00 Dina Iordanova <p>The author calls for continuity and continuation of the study of women’s&nbsp;cinema. Attention is drawn to the blurring of memory and even erasing women from the history of national film industries. They are not recognised as authors, while the history of cinema has been subject to the concept of the auteur film-maker. The filmmakers are made through the commitment and work of film critics and then cinema historians. The expert does not hide the fact that those relationships are strengthened by bonds of friendship, without the fear of being accused of having a&nbsp;lack of objectivity, and are often associated with the support of the author on the international festival circuit. The author calls for ‘watching across borders’, i.e. a&nbsp;supranational approach to the study of women’s&nbsp;cinema. Crossing the borders of national cinemas, in which the authors have not been recognised, allows a&nbsp;broader perspective to see the critical mass of the authors of world cinema. Politically, for the feminist cause, it is better to talk about European women’s&nbsp;cinema. Iordanova selects from the history of Central and Eastern European cinema, the names of authors who did not receive due attention. Moreover, she proposes specific inclusive and corrective feminist practices: the inclusion of filmmakers in the didactics, repertoires of film collections and festival selections; a&nbsp;commitment to self-study by watching at least one woman’s&nbsp;film a&nbsp;week.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) The Other Sex of Polish Cinema. The Contribution of Female Filmmakers to Feature Film Production in the People’s Republic of Poland 2020-08-26T08:43:23+02:00 Monika Talarczyk <p>The paper is dedicated to the Polish female filmmakers – contributors to feature film production from the period 1945–1989 in the Polish state film industry. The theoretical framework is based on women’s studies and production studies. Author presents and comments on the numbers from the quantitative research, including credits of feature films production, divided into key positions: director, scriptwriter, cinematographer, music, editor, production manager, set designer and assistant director, costume designer. The results are presented in graphics and commented in 5 years blocs. The analysis leads to the conclusions describing the specificity of emancipation in socialist Poland in the area of creative work.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) New Horizons and Disruptions. East-German Female Directors of the DEFA-Studios and from Underground 2020-08-26T08:45:11+02:00 Cornelia Klauß <p>On the occasion of a&nbsp; publication Sie – Regisseurinnen der DEFA und ihre Filme, Berlin, Schriftenreihe der DEFA-Stiftung, 2019, all female directors who worked for the DEFA studios in the GDR were identified for the first time. More than sixty women directors worked for DEFA between 1946 and 1992. They made feature films and documentaries, worked in advertising film and in the animation studio. Particularly among the smaller formats, there is a&nbsp;striking number of female directors who were able to accommodate their preferred themes in the slipstream of the major productions. They problematized the official reading of equal rights and created counter-images in their figures and portraits. To be added to the canon of female filmmaking are also the independent women filmmakers, who were only allowed to realize and show their works outside the official media structures. These were female artists who discovered the film medium for themselves and made Super-8 abstract films with elements of performance on very low budgets.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) "Constructing Masculinities in Iris Gusner’s" Die Taube auf dem Dach (1973, 1990, 2010) 2020-08-27T08:21:53+02:00 Mary-Elizabeth O’Brien <p>One of the few female directors employed at DEFA Studios, Iris Gusner directed Die Taube auf dem Dach in 1972. It was banned and thought lost until rediscovered in 1990, only to be lost again and restored a&nbsp;second time for a&nbsp;premiere 37 years after completion. My essay reviews the remarkable production history of Die Taube and explores what made Gusner’s&nbsp;work unacceptable for public consumption and debate. Attentive to discourse analysis and gender studies, I&nbsp;argue that Die Taube was censored largely because it assaulted the core ideal of selfless socialist construction and revealed the unsuitability of the hegemonic modes of masculinity for building successful heterosexual relations. I&nbsp;argue that Gusner’s&nbsp;disparagement of outdated and progressive masculine heroic identities contributed to the film’s&nbsp;censorship, disappearance, and near elimination from film history.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Zofia Dwornik: Becoming a Female Film Editor 2020-08-27T08:22:55+02:00 Paulina Kwiatkowska <p>In this article the author intends to recall the figure of Zofia Dwornik, one of the most appreciated and nowadays rather forgotten female film editors of post-war communist Poland. For the twenty-five years of her creative activity, Dwornik cooperated in the production of more than thirty films with the most important directors of the Polish cinema in the 1950s, 60s and 70s. In the Polish post-war cinema, the profession of film editor was strongly feminised. In the case of Dwornik, her decision to choose this particular profession was, however, based on additional objective considerations, closely related to the context of the Stalinist period in Poland, and was not her first choice of career – she had wanted to become a&nbsp;film director. In this article the author takes a&nbsp;closer look not so much at the achievements of Dwornik in the 1960s and 70s, but at the complex circumstances that influenced her later career. Therefore, the author tries to reconstruct the most important moments in Dwornik’s student and professional life in the first years after WWII and analyse one of the film études she made at the Film School in Łódź, in order to examine the reasons for her decision to become a&nbsp;film editor. This allows also to formulate some hypotheses how her career might have developed, had she been given the chance to graduate and try her hand at directing.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) “I like it close” – Jolanta Dylewska’s art of cinematography 2020-08-27T08:23:32+02:00 Katarzyna Taras <p>The author presents the cinematographer and director Jolanta Dylewska, striving to define her cinematographic style. Although Dylewska began working independently as a&nbsp;cinematographer only after the turn of 1989, her position in the history of Polish and European cinema can be determined through awareness of her female pioneership in this profession, set against the background of generations of graduates of the Cinematography Department at the Lodz Film School. The researcher focuses on films that are the result of Dylewska’s&nbsp;collaboration with transnational directors, Agnieszka Holland (In the Darkness, Spoor) and Sergey Dvortsevoy (Tulpan, Ayka). The cinematographer denies that she has developed her own individual style, her goal is to find a&nbsp;style that will communicate the director’s&nbsp;vision. The researcher, however, finds characteristic features in her images, such as telling stories through landscapes and faces, including animals, and immersing the viewer in images – by using light and sharpness and bringing all the cinematographer’s&nbsp;technical expertise into play.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) (Hi)Story for the Youngest. Adaptations of Children’s Literature Made by Polish Female Directors 2020-08-27T08:24:13+02:00 Magdalena Walo <p>In this article the author focuses on the subgenre of historical film for children and adolescents directed in the Polish People’s Republic by female directors. In the 50s and 60s most of the Polish films dedicated for young audience were an adaptation of popular novels often based on historical events. As Piotr Kurpiewski points out: “the director’s intent behind those historical productions was strictly educational, and it aimed primarily for the young viewers to obtain some knowledge of history through watching the film.” But historical productions for children were not only captivating for the young audience, but also for the directors. Especially for female directors.</p> <p>The main goal of this article is to present how that trivialized genre, of which examples were basically used as educational materials or treated as unserious fairytales, helped female directors speak in their own voices and give them opportunities to present past from their own perspectives.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Éminence Grise or a Mentor? More on Ester Krumbachová 2020-08-27T08:25:57+02:00 Grażyna Świętochowska <p>A&nbsp;graduate of painting and graphic arts at the Higher School of Arts and Crafts in Brno, Ester Krumbachová became known in her professional life as a&nbsp;costume designer, set designer, scriptwriter, author and finally a&nbsp;director. However, she was often pushed to the margins of authorship with the label of “inspiration and just a&nbsp;muse”. There are at least a&nbsp;few basic themes that organize the specificity of Ester’s&nbsp;artistic discourse. There are costumes, and props for which she was responsible: hats, shawls, black umbrellas, silk shirts, camp coats or overalls made out of newspaper and twine. But the whole galaxy of food, meal preparation, feeding and gluttony demands describing. The films Ester was involved in, as a&nbsp;writer or director, are woven from it. The specificity of the interior, often adjacent to the “metaphorical and mental” map of the artist’s&nbsp;apartment, becomes an important background for the platform of culinary images. The recorded registers seem to speak of food and clothes, typically female areas of interest and activity. The main aim of this article will be to treat them as semantically important mechanisms of communication, mostly visual and non-verbal.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Sexuality, Feminism and Polish Cinema in Maria Kornatowska’s "Eros i film" 2020-08-27T08:26:40+02:00 Małgorzata Radkiewicz <p>The text addresses the issue of feminist film criticism in Poland in the 1980s, represented by the book by Maria Kornatowska <em>Eros i&nbsp; film</em> [<em>Eros and Film</em>, 1986]. In her analysis Kornatowska focused mostly on Polish cinema, examined through a&nbsp;feminist and psychoanalytic lens. As a&nbsp;film critic, she followed international cinematic offerings and the latest trends in film studies, which is why she decided to fill the gap in Polish writings on gender and sexuality in cinema, and share her knowledge and ideas on the relationship between Eros and Film. The purpose of the text on Kornatowska’s book was to present her individual interpretations of the approach of Polish and foreign filmmakers to the body, sexuality, gender identity, eroticism, the question of violence and death. Secondly, it was important to emphasize her skills and creative potential as a&nbsp;film critic who was able to use many diverse repositories of thought (including feminist theories, philosophy and anthropology) to create a&nbsp;multi-faceted lens, which she then uses to perform a&nbsp;subjective, critical analysis of selected films.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Między kinem a reklamą. Semantyczne przestrzenie zwiastuna filmowego 2020-08-27T08:27:16+02:00 Anna Górny <p>Trailers are the theatre of the good things coming soon. Since the status of the trailer in the media and cultural space is constantly changing, the question can be asked: What is a trailer in the era of media convergence? It seems to exist somewhere between cinema and advertising, in a wide range of art and commerce, but in a situation where fan trailers and parody trailers are becoming more and more sophisticated and imitative of the real thing, even these criteria are losing their usefulness, and all the more so if you point out advertisements that, conversely, pretend to be film trailers.</p> <p>The first part of the article will determine how important the trailers are in the marketing strategy of a film. The production of trailers is an important segment of the advertising industry. It is crucial to construct the trailer in such a way as to attract the audience’s attention and convince them that the film being advertised is the one they should see. To achieve this, the creators of trailers use similar strategies, conventions and tools. This article will set out to present views of the leading trailer makers: Andrew J. Kuehn, Shaun Farrington, Mark Woollen and Anthony Sloman. In the latter part of the text, the issues of the film trailer will be placed in the broader context of the cultural space in which it exists and functions. The main areas of research on trailers will be presented (featuring Lisa Kernan, Keith M. Johnston, Jonathan Gray, Daniel Hesford, Barbara Klinger, Kathleen Williams, among others), consistently leading to reflection on the paratextual nature of the trailers, embedded in contemporary theoretical discourse and in the screen practices themselves.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) O pewnej tendencji (współczesnego) kina francuskiego… „Kino przedmieść” i jego wizualne parateksty na przykładzie "Nienawiści" Mathieu Kassovitza i "Nieustraszonej" Danielle Arbid 2020-08-27T08:28:41+02:00 Justyna Hanna Budzik Marta Kasprzak <p>In this paper we elaborate on the educational use of film posters understood as film paratexts in Gérard Genette’s&nbsp;theory as well as in later media research. The subject of our research is <em>cinéma de banlieue</em> – a&nbsp;French film movement that situates the protagonists not only spatially, but also socially (such as <em>La Haine</em>, dir. M. Kassovitz, 1995, <em>Entre les murs</em>, dir. L. Cantet, 2008, <em>Peur de rien</em>, dir. D. Arbid, 2015, and <em>Dheepan</em>, dir. J. Audiard, 2015). By analyzing film paratexts, we include these materials in the context of cultural representations of the Parisian suburbs. Our research is established in educational and academic practice whose essential part is the in-depth work with the paratexts conducted by students and facilitated by the lecturer.</p> 2020-08-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c)