Panoptikum <p>„Panoptikum” to wydawany przez Uniwersytet Gdański półrocznik poświęcony kulturze audiowizualnej. Na jego łamach publikowane są zarówno oryginalne artykuły w zainicjowanym przez redakcję monograficznym kluczu tematycznym, jak i wiodące tłumaczenia z zakresu filmoznawstwa, nowych mediów oraz sztuk wizualnych.</p> Uniwersytet Gdański pl-PL Panoptikum 1730-7775 Wstęp Mirosław Przylipiak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 6 11 The Notion of Mainstream Film in Contemporary Cinema <p style="text-align: justify;">The goal of this paper is to establish how the term „a mainstream film” is used and understood, what meaning is assigned to it in contemporary discourse about cinema. Wide research was carried out, aimed at pinpointing its usage both on the Internet, among bloggers and film forum members, as well as in academic papers. It turns out that the term is widely used, but very scarcely defined. Moreover, it is understood in very different, often incompatible manners. At least six meanings were detected. A mainstream film can be a blockbuster, a film which propagates dominant ideologies, a realist film, a film which employs continuity editing, a film rooted in the tradition of classical Hollywood cinema, a film that is easy to comprehend. Until recently, all these meanings could be combined due to a relatively high degree of uniformity within film culture, but now, when Cinema is experiencing growing diversification in all spheres, it is probably better not to use it at all.</p> Mirosław Przylipiak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 14 31 10.26881/pan.2018.19.01 Koordynowanie narracji filmowej z reakcjami emocjonalnymi widza <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of the paper is to show how the narrative address of the movies and their emotional address are typically interconnected. Specifically, how the criterial prefocusing model can be integrated with the erotetic narration model.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Erotetic narration explains how a movie holds attention, how spectators are able to follow its unfolding, how it succeeds in making us feel that it is unified, and how it engenders the feeling of closure. It is based on the claim that question formation is a natural human mental propensity and movies exploit this natural propensity, by presenting us with situations that dispose us to formulate certain questions if only tacitly. The promise of those questions being answered sustains our interest in the story, while guideing our tracking of the flow of information and viewing the story with a feeling of unity and coherence, and typically, ultimately closure.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Our emotional engagement with movies is not solely a function of the rhetoric of erotetic narration, but also of the emotional content of the narrative. So in order to explain how that engages the audience effectively, Carroll turns to his theory of criterial prefocusing. Emotions are understood here as mechanisms of selective attention, which organise our perception of the environment by picking up what will help or hinder us. Contrary to our natural environment, in the movies, the environment has already been designed to make certain emotional themes, such as danger or injustice, stand out. Elements of the shot, scene or sequence are preselected and made salient by the moviemaker by means of visual devices such as scenography, framing, aural effects and various narrative and dramaturgical structures.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The phenomenon of criterial prefocusing serves the purposes of erotetic narration primarily by securing our emotional attachment to the protagonists and our affective aversion or antipathy to the antagonist, which invests us in macroquestions about the overall prospect for success and micro-questions from scene to scene.</p> Noël Carroll Monika Bokiniec ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 32 42 10.26881/pan.2018.19.02 Tragic Narrative Strategies in Contemporary American Cinema. Eastwood-Penn-Grey (1995-2001) <p style="text-align: justify;">Tragedies were performed for the first time in ancient Greece between the sixth and fifth century BC. A century later, Aristotle in the Poetics gave his famous definition of tragedy, transforming it into a narrative genre. Our aim is primarily to introduce and analyse some characteristics of the tragic scheme. Three main elements will be taken into consideration. We will see that at the very heart of the tragic narration there is “something” unrepresentable, unbearable and nameless that Lacan, in the VII seminar on ethics, names Das Ding or La Chose, The Thing. After that, we will consider the representation of an ethical power which disputes the traditional and institutionalised order. Thirdly, the presence of sacred forces will be evoked to contextualise the ancien and contemporary tragic narrations in a mythical, pre-logical, pre-textual framework. However, in order to identify any forms of tragic narratives in the contemporary era, a consideration of the medium itself cannot be avoided, as tragedies were shown and affected large crowds of people and had a substantial political role. Cinema is thus revealed to be the most privileged media device to present modern tragic narrations and their typical aesthetic solutions. In this article, we will discuss three examples of tragic narratives in mainstream American cinema from the last three decades. Works by Sean Penn (The Pledge, 2001), James Grey (Little Odessa, 1995) and Clint Eastwood (Midnight in the garden of good and evil, 1997) will be investigated.</p> Martina Olivero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 43 55 10.26881/pan.2018.19.03 W poszukiwaniu głównego nurtu w polskim kinie współczesnym <p style="text-align: justify;">In this text, the author seeks what the main stream in contemporary domestic cinematography is. Following the definitions of mainstream by Mirosław Przylipiak from the text “The Notion of Mainstream Film in Contemporary Cinema”, the author distinguishes two ways of understanding this phenomenon in the context of Polish cinema. First of all, these productions are commercial, with a large budget, with stars in the cast, profit-oriented, aimed to appeal to a mass audience (e.g. copying global Hollywood formats and presenting it through Polish lenses); secondly, they are films propagating a dominant ideology. The designation of the Polish mainstream has specific goals: (1) to establish which direction Polish cinema is heading in, (2) to dissect it, (3) to note what makes Polish cinematography evolve and what it is that attracts more and more viewers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In the summary, the author shows that what is most important in Polish Cinema is the dominant ideology that allows us to understand the phenomenon of its main stream. As a model example of the Polish mainstream, the film Gods by Lukas Palkowski is quoted.</p> Krystyna Weiher-Sitkiewicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 56 68 10.26881/pan.2018.19.04 Red is the New Black. Storytelling and Style in Candidate (2013) and The Red Captain (2016) <p style="text-align: justify;">The non-existence or deficiency in the production of popular genres in the history of Slovak cinema after the split from Czech Republic in 1993 has been a much discussed subject in the Slovak filmmaking community. It is a common belief among both filmmakers and film critics, that due to the lack of popular genre traditions and financial difficulties of film production, Slovak cinema is not able to attract domestic audiences and is primarily focused on the arthouse and festival circuit. This overt simplification, however, has in recent years been challenged by the emergence of several films that introduced generic novelties into Slovak cinema.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper deals with two major representatives of this popular genre upheaval that were successful at the box office: the political thriller <em>Candidate </em>(2013) by Jonaš Karasek and the detective story <em>The Red Captain </em>(2016) by Michal Kollar. Both films are literary adaptations touching upon the subject of continuity of the communist regime after the democratic turn in 1989. Although not unanimously critically praised, they both gained considerable attention thanks to presenting an alternative to the realistic arthouse social drama trend of Slovak fiction film. The text examines innovations that these films introduced into popular genre discourse of Slovak cinema by concentrating on prominent storytelling and stylistic techniques derived mainly from mainstream popular cinema and offer some preliminary thoughts on reasons underlying their successful reception among domestic audiences.</p> Katarina Mišikova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 69 77 10.26881/pan.2018.19.05 Oddramatyzowanie akcji i antyklimaks w kinie współczesnym <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper discusses the influence of modernist aesthetics on the changes in the dramatic structure of film. In the films analysed by the author, the typical tricks for the classical model, such as dramatisation of action and climax as the classic denouement, are etiolated, turning into their antitheses: de-dramatising of action and anti-climax. On the examples of films such as: <em>The Four Hundred Blows </em>by F. Truffaut, <em>The Adventure </em>by M. Antonioni, <em>Gran Torino </em>by C. Eastwood, <em>The</em> <em>Mist </em>by F. Darabont, <em>Smoke </em>by W. Wang, and <em>Three Monkeys </em>and <em>Once Upon</em> <em>a Time in Anatolia </em>by N.B. Ceylan, the author demonstrates the functions and artistic potential of denouements which shift attention from action to characters and leave the viewer with the dilemma of an “open” ending.</p> Jacek Ostaszewski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 80 94 10.26881/pan.2018.19.06 Incoherent Narration, Hauntology and the Liminal Status of Female Vampire in Swedish Films Frostbite and Let the Right One In <p style="text-align: justify;">This text is an attempt to analyze selected elements of the incoherent narration in the first contemporary vampire movie from Sweden. <em>Frostbite </em>(directed by Anders Banke, 2006) is an image that reinterprets classical horror figures in various ways. The authors of the script use visual patterns from films and horror novels, intriguingly linking them with social criticism and a feminist perspective. The incoherent models of the narration may also be found in such strategies as mixing serious topics with comedy and dyschronic presentation of elements related to the plot’s time. By using these types of strategies the Swedish horror can be read as an attempt to create a hauntological reflection on the liminal status of vampires in postmodern fiction or even more general meditation on the spectral status of modern audiovisual media.</p> Jakub Sebastian Konefał ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 95 107 10.26881/pan.2018.19.07 The Fragmentary Narrative in the Nomadic VJ Performance by Peter Greenaway <p style="text-align: justify;">The article explores fragmentary, transmedia images of the nomadic &nbsp;Tulse Luper &nbsp;VJ Performance in terms of activation of the senses. Considering its key characteristics (such as mobility of the spectator, the multiplicity of viewpoints, fragmentary &nbsp;storytelling), this VJ screen-based performance challenges ordinary assumptions of the cinematic experience. This perspective sheds a new light on the areal connection of the multi-screen environment that exceeds the perception of one linear &nbsp;story in favour of a kaleidoscopic stream of images and ekphrastic writing. By &nbsp;analysing spatio-temporal specifics of the No TV Tulse Luper VJ Performance, this &nbsp;methodological study attempted to demonstrate that the VJ projection could not only be perceived as a reconfiguration of the basic trilogy but also as a unique, &nbsp;non-linear, touch-based manipulation of storytelling that aims at transforming &nbsp;a cinematic event into a real-time, expanded audiovisual project.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kamil Lipiński ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 108 120 10.26881/pan.2018.19.08 Narrative Strategies in Contemporary Independent American Horror Movies <p style="text-align: justify;">The main aim of the article is to paint a picture of contemporary American &nbsp;horror film and mark the division between its mainstream and independent sides. The first part focuses on topics, subgenres and strategies connected with mainstream American horror films; the second part is dedicated to the renaissance of low-budget, but original and artistically fulfilled horror movies produced outside Hollywood and directors that achieved commercial success thanks to following their vision and thinking outside the box. In the article, Grzegorz Fortuna Jr. uses methods connected with production studies research to discover how the economy, changing tastes of audiences and artistic ideas influence contemporary independent American horror film.</p> Grzegorz Fortuna Jr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 121 130 10.26881/pan.2018.19.09 #problemypierwszegoswiata Gdy długie filmy trwają jeszcze dłużej <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this essay is to identify the ways in which long films might be seen to constitute a challenge to the capitalist ideology that underwrites much of contemporary life. I shall do this not by identifying what makes a long film long, but by working with the very relativity of the term (it is not that all movies over, say, three hours in length are ‘long’). That is, I shall argue that a film becomes ‘long’ when it contradicts the demands of contemporary life under capitalism. I shall then explore to what extent this contradiction always holds if all films are, regarless of running time, spectacles of a sort, and thus not a challenge to, but a critical component of life under capitalism. Finally, I shall suggest that it is when films are unnecessarily longer than they should be, e.g. when the internet is not working for online film viewing, that we have perhaps the most powerful challenge to the ‘busy’ ideology of life under capitalism.</p> William Brown Anna Ratkiewicz-Syrek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 131 142 Trapped in Amber: The New Materialities of Memory <p style="text-align: justify;">The term ‘obsolescence’ has in recent years re-entered the vocabulary of the art world, memory studies and new media historians. In the process, it has significantly changed its meaning and enlarged its semantic and evaluative range, even signifying something like heroic resistance to relentless new-ness or superficial novelty, even becoming the badge of honour for all that is no longer useful (for capitalism, for appropriation, for instrumental objectification). Anyone engaged with ‘found footage’ films, with home movies or our analogue cinematic legacy knows that the strategic use of obsolescence lies in the fact that it is a term that inevitably associates with both capitalism and technology. Hence obsolescence is of special interest in the context of contemporary cinema, since it provides a counterweight – the materiality of memory, and the methodology of media archaeology – to the immateriality and virtuality of the digital. But the obsolescence of celluloid also gives us a kind of ‘fossil record’ of what has become of the filmic ‘medium’ when we see it in the broader context of the ‘geological’ time of media, and as part of the ‘archival’ turn that memory studies have taken in the 21st century.</p> Thomas Elsaesser ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 144 158 10.26881/pan.2018.19.10 Filmowe asamblaże. Analiza stylu wizualnego Wesa Andersona <p style="text-align: justify;">Within the last 15 years, Wes Anderson has become one of the most recognizable American directors. From his debut Bottle Rocket to his last movie Isle of Dogs, he has built a specific world full of quirky characters, fancy items, all engulfed in a particularly idiosyncratic visual style. The article tries to point out that the dominance of Anderson’s cinema is precisely his visual style and creation of a cinematic space. The visual perspective seems to be the most suitable and, at the same time, prolific to analyse his filmography. The article investigates &nbsp;Anderson’s way of building mise-en-scène. How does he use symmetrical frames, closed composition, or scenographic elements, what is the point of all this hassle? However, the most essential angle is strictly connected to production studies – creating space in pre-production (break-downs, storyboards, location hunting), which defines the style of Anderson. The article traces differences between production and design in his feature films and the animated Fantastic Mr Fox and Isle of Dogs. Seeking hyper realistic locations, spending most of the budget on authentic World War II ships or simply adapting interiors – those cases will help to dwell in the cinematic mind of the American director. Finally, the paper tries to prove that analysing the production side can tell us a huge amount about Anderson’s visual style and world-building.</p> Paulina Pohl ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 159 175 10.26881/pan.2018.19.11 Lęk i czerwona kotara. Prestiż a twórczość nie-filmowa Davida Lyncha <p style="text-align: justify;">Inspired by David Lynch’s works of visual art, this paper is an attempt to identify some extra-artistic mechanisms (the art market) relating to artworks. As a result, his non-cinematic works have been analysed here in the context of the mechanisms operating in culture, as indicated by Mieke Bal (“cultural imperialism”) and James F. English (“economy of prestige”). The artistic works of the American film director have been located on the main axes identified in this context. In addition to the expressionist-surrealist origin and commonly acknowledged connotations with the works of Edvard Munch, Oskar Kokoschka and Francis Bacon, the author also shows ideological threads combining Lynch’s works with Tadeusz Kantor’s legacy.</p> Magdalena Howorus-Czajka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 176 184 10.26881/pan.2018.19.12 Od edukacji filmowej do edukacji audiowizualnej. Teorie i praktyki – recenzja Marta Kasprzak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 19 185 191