Porta Aurea https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea <p>Czasopismo powstaje z myślą o czytelnikach zainteresowanych historią sztuki i architektury, a tematycznie skupione jest na problematyce artystycznej szeroko rozumianego regionu basenu Morza Bałtyckiego. Sprofilowanie to nie ma charakteru wykluczającego, ale oznacza, że teksty poświęcone sztuce Gdańska, czy szerzej, Trójmiasta, Pomorza, północnych Niemiec, krajów Bałtyckich i Skandynawii stanowią główny trzon każdego tomu. Teksty zasadniczo publikowane są po polsku z anglojęzycznymi streszczeniami oraz po angielsku ze streszczeniami polskimi. Publikuje się także teksty lub streszczenia w języku niemieckim. Rocznik Porta Aurea znajduje się od 2013 roku na ministerialnej liście C czasopism punktowanych znajdujących się w bazie ERIH - European Reference Index for the Humanities (10 pkt). Od 2019 czasopismo objęte jest projektem Wsparcie dla Czasopism Naukowych MNiSW.</p> pl-PL hismo@ug.edu.pl (prof. dr hab. Małgorzata Omilanowska) czasopismaug@ug.edu.pl (Agnieszka Kranich-Lamczyk) pią, 20 gru 2019 12:22:37 +0100 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pruskie echa koncepcji artystycznych Mikołaja z Lejdy https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3814 <p style="text-align: justify;">Nicolaus Gerhaert von Leyden played a key role in the development of sculpture on a significant part of the Latin Europe territory of the last few decades of the Middle Ages. It is hard to imagine what art of the leading sculptors of the next generation would have looked like had it not been for him. The sources of his art remain a mystery to this day. Certainly, the size and degree of the reception of his art which lasted for several decades after his death are not recognized sufficiently. We know too little about the ways of the penetration of his style and intermediaries in its transfer. The present paper shows that some inventions by the great Netherlandish sculptor reached Prussia: the region distant from the main centers of his activity. Prussian sculpture links with his art are more numerous than previously thought. We can recognize them in several categories: pose of statue, relation between body and clothes, composition and form of draperies, motifs, chapel-shape interior of the retable corpus. and type of image.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Some Prussian sculptures: The Man of Sorrow (ca. 1500) in St John’s Church in Toruń, the figure presenting the same subject in the lost retable (ca. 1500–1510) from the Benedictine Nuns’ Church in Königsberg-Löbenicht, and St. Florian in the retable (ca. 1510) from St Johns’ Church in Malbork (now St Catherine’s Church in Braniewo), show a walking figure. They have analogues in sculptures made in Nicolaus Gerhaert von Leyden’s circle like the Man of Sorrow in the crowning of the retable (ca. 1483) of the high altar in the church in Lautenbach im Renchtal, and works by Michel Erhart who probably had been trained in Gerhaert’s workshop in Strasbourg: Christ Child with Grapes (ca. 1470, Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum) and Knights holding coats of arms from ‘Fischkastenbrunnen’ (1482), in Ulm (Ulm, Ulmer Museum). Some affinities with the dynamic pose of the Christ Child in the Dangolsheim Madonna (ca. 1460–1465, Berlin, Staatliche Museen), attributed to Nicolaus Gerhaert von Leyden can be found in his counterpart in the Madonna from the crowning of the retable from Kremitten near Königsberg (the whole work was lost after 1944).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;The innovation by the same sculptor: the layered structure, so-called ‘shell and core principle’ (‘Schale – Kern – Prinzip’) was repeatedly applied in Prussia. It appeared in the form as close as possible to the model made by him in St Barbara’s figure in her retable (ca. 1500) in Our Lady’s Church in Gdańsk. It has the structure and the form of clothes very similar to the sculpture of St Mary Magdalene (ca.1470–80, Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum), which is attributed to the Nuremberg Master of the retable in Zwickau and to the figures in the corpus of the famous retable (ca. 1490–1497) in the pilgrimage church in Kefermarkt; both works show close links with the pupils of Nicolaus Gerhaert von Leyden.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The prototype for the Virgin and Child (ca. 1500) in St. John the Baptist’s Church in Świerczynki near Toruń lies in the Dangolsheim Madonna; it could be also paralleled with the Olomouc Madonna (ca. 1480–1490, Brno, Moravská galerie v. Brně), which is attributed to a sculptor trained in the Haut-Rhin area, within the circle of Nicolaus Gerhaert von Leyden.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Not only was the general concept of a block of sculpture derived from his works applied in Prussia. In several local art pieces paraphrases of motifs derived from his or his collaborators’ art can be traced. The motif of the raised coattail to the faces of St John the Evangelist comes in the Passion groups from the second decade of the 16th century: in St Catherine’s Church, Our Lady’s Church, both in Gdańsk, and that of St Martin’s Church in Barłożno near Starogard Gdański. It is conceivable that it originates from the figure of St John the Evangelist from the Nördlingen retable (1462). Another motif having affinity with the works from Nicolaus Gerhart von Leyden’s circle appears in the Pietà (ca. 1480–1490) in the church of the Nativity of the Holy Virgin in Swarzewo. A very long loincloth falling on the sculpture base draws parallels to the form of the same motif in several sculptures of the Man of Sorrow i. e.. the one (ca. 1470–1480) in the roadside chapel in Höllenthorn-Spratzeck in Lower Austria, close to the works by Nicolaus Gerhart von Leyden.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">During two first decades of the 16th century in several Prussian retables, first of all in these on the high altar (1510–1517) in Our Lady’s Church in Gdańsk and ca. 1514, from the high altar in Our Lady’s Church in Elbląg (now in St Nicholas’ Church in Elbląg) the idea of a chapel-shape interior of the retable corpus (‘Kapellenschrein’) appeared. It was developed and widespread by the Netherlandish artist. The lost retable by him (1466), from the high altar in the cathedral in Constance probably had such a form. It was within his circle that the retable in the church in Lautenbach im Renchtal (ca. 1483) was made. It shows close analogies with the retables in Gdańsk and Elbląg.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A half figure or bust in a niche resembling a window recurs several times in works by this artist e.g. in the Prophet and the Sybille (1463) from the Old Chancellery in Strasbourg (Strasbourg, Musée de l’Oeuvre Notre-Dame; Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), the Man Meditating (1463, Strasbourg, Musée de l’Oeuvre Notre-Dame), and the epitaph of Canon Konrad von Busnang (1464) in the Cathedral in Strasbourg. The same type&nbsp;of image can be found in the art of Prussia in the scene of the Adoration of the Magi in the corpus of the retable (after 1511), from the high altar in the parish church&nbsp;in the New Town in Elbląg (now in St Nicholas’ Church, Elbląg) and to some extant in another work made in Elbląg: the lost triptych (before 1518) from Kumehnen near Königsberg. Moreover, in Prussia we find a pictorial paraphrase of such a kind of image in the half figures of the Prophets in the small quarters on the top of the middle pairs of the wings of the retable of the high altar in Our Lady’s Church in Gdańsk. In the Crucifix in Baden-Baden (1467) Nicolas Gerhaert von Leyden created a new type of the image of Christ Crucified, which is characterized by his body strongly stretched out on the Cross (‘gestreckter Kruzifixtypus’, ‘le crucifix étiré’). An example of such an iconographic type is the Crucifix (ca. 1510–1520) in St Nicolas’ Church in Grójec near Warsaw made in the workshop of the Gdańsk sculptor Master Paul.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">At the end of the medieval period a new language was introduced into Prussian sculpture by artists trained in Bavarian, Swabian, Franconian, and Tyrolean territory where artistic heirs of Nicolaus Gerhaert von Leyden were working. His innovative ideas became there a common good. It should be stressed that their presence in Prussia was not due to his direct impact. Such late reception in this region was a proof of an unusual attractiveness of Nicolas Gerhaert von Leyden’s art.</p> Andrzej Woziński Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3814 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Rozproszony, lecz nie zaginiony. Losy poliptyku św. Mikołaja z około 1435 roku z kościoła Najświętszej Marii Panny w Gdańsku https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3815 <p style="text-align: justify;">The altarpiece of St Nicholas (ca. 1435) from St Mary’s Church in Gdańsk was donated by the Guild of Brewers. From 15th century to the Second World War it was on display in the same church. During the war and the evacuation, the elements of that retable were separated from each other. After 1945 it was believed that only four double-sided painted wings have been preserved to this day. Other elements: the corpus and the figure of St Nicholas, - were considered as wartime losses. Due to laconic information in written sources it was almost impossible to recognize elements of that retable among many artworks with unknown provenance. Thanks to the glass plate negative kept at the National Museum in Gdańsk and one photo from Willi Drost’s photo collection archive kept at the Herder Institute in Marburg, the Author of the present paper recognized in the ’corpus from unknown altarpiece’ from the National Museum in Gdańsk (inv. no. MNG/SD/46/Rz) the corpus of the Altarpiece of St Nicholas. It was also possible to finally recognize another element from that retable: the figure of St&nbsp;Nicholas, which has been on display in St Barbara’s Church in Gdańsk probably since the 1980s. This paper is an attempt to recreate different vicissitudes of each part of one altarpiece following WW II.</p> Weronika Grochowska Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3815 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Model do medalu Daniela Placotomusa w kontekście medali osobistych w XVI-wiecznym Gdańsku https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3816 <p style="text-align: justify;">Personal medals, originated in 15th century Italy, became popular in Gdańsk in the course of the following century. Already in 1522–1532, Jan Dantyszek was commemorated in five medals. In 1544–1599, seven medals and two medallic models were commisioned for the residents of the city: Jorg Schewecke, Johann, Hans and Jacob Connert, Marcus Koehne -Jaschke, Catharina Placotomi, Jacob Schachmann and Hans Schwarzwaldt.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The current article is focused on the hitherto unknown model for the medal of Daniel Placotomus (c. 1566–1616). Carved in Solnhofen sandstone in 1594, it commemorates the fourth child of Johann Placotomus (1514–1577), a distinguished medic, pharmacist, and pedagogue active in Gdańsk from 1550. The study presents a reconstruction of the biography of Daniel Placotomus, a relatively little known member of the Placotomus family and seeks to establish motivation behind the commission of his likeness. The sandstone portrait is analysed in the context of the 16th century medallic portraits of Gdańsk residents and in relation to the remaining portraits of the members of the Placotomus family.</p> Aleksandra Jaśniewicz Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3816 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Friedrich Edel – mało znany rytownik czynny w Prusach Królewskich pod koniec XVII wieku https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3817 <p style="text-align: justify;">The engraver Friedrich Edel was active in 1690, providing copper plates for the owners of publishing houses in Danzig and Thorn: David Friedrich Rhet, Johann Christian Laurer, and Samuel Genter. Only five works signed by him have been identified. The earliest one is an engraving attached to a description of fireworks thrown by the city council of Danzig in 1691 on the occasion of the wedding of prince James Louis Sobieski with Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia of Neuburg. In the next years the engravings executed by Edel appeared in occasional prints, religious books, both Catholic and Protestant, and a Polish-language edition of works by Lucius Annaeus Seneca. One of the most interesting prints is the title page of a religious songbook dated around 1700. Besides scenes from the New Testament, it contains a view of Thorn, which was hitherto unknown to the researchers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Until now no attempts to identify even the basic facts form the biography of the maker of the presented engravings have been made. It is, however, known that a craftsman named Friedrich Edel was noted in Danzig. He was a son and pupil of Hieronymus Edel, a master goldsmith in Danzig in 1628–1681. After the death of his father, in 1628 Friedrich gained citizenship as a goldsmith and became a master in the guild. The last reference to him in the guild documents is dated 1691: by that time he had not been active as a goldsmith for six years, thus got expelled from the organization and became regarded as a botcher.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Engravings used by goldsmiths to decorate their works are close to techniques used by printmakers. It was one of the basic abilities of a skilled goldsmith, often tested during the master’s exam. In early-modern Europe numerous goldsmiths were also active as engravers, among them such eminent masters as Wentzel Jamnitzer of Nuremberg and Carl Pfister of Breslau. What is more, in some guilds (Nuremberg, Cluj-Napoca) newly promoted masters executed small-sized engravings, most often with ornamental compositions. Taking all these facts into consideration, the engraver Friedrich Edel seems to be the same person as the goldsmith of the same name.</p> Katarzyna Krupska-Łyczak , Bartłomiej Łyczak Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3817 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Dwa capriccia architektoniczne z kolekcji Muzeum Narodowego w Gdańsku – próba atrybucji https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3967 <p style="text-align: justify;">The article analyses two Italian paintings from the collection of the National Museum in Gdańsk, which so far have not been a subject of scientific inquiry. Both works, of unknown provenance and authorship, were included in the Museum’s collection after World War II. They are architectural capriccios: a type of landscape in which buildings or their fragments, often supplemented by staffage, are placed in juxtaposition with fantastical objects produced by artistic imagination. The popularity of these architectural pieces and their development as an independent genre can be observed from the first half of the 17th century, and it is paintings by Viviano Codazzi (1606–1672) and Alessandro Salucci (1590–1655) that were instrumental in the appearance of the fashion for such motifs.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Based on the comparative stylistic analysis, an attempt was made to attribute the works from the Gdańsk collection to the two leading Neapolitan artists from the 17th and 18th century. The first painting shows a clear dependence on the work of the already mentioned Viviano Codazzi, an artist associated with Naples and Rome. The painting displays similarities to the artist’s works from the 1650s and the 1660s with the characteristic solutions in the field of composition and chiaroscuro. We can see the same precise way of applying architectural details and the perfect knowledge of the principles of perspective, unsurpassed by any of his numerous followers. The second painting, showing the view of a port with picturesque ruins in the foreground, was assigned to Gennaro Greco (1663–1714), a creator of imaginary architectural landscapes and the master of luminist effects and sublime, delicate colour. This pioneering artist, working at the turn of the 18th century was considered the most important Neapolitan painter of his time.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Despite the large number of works presenting architectural capriccios which have survived in public and private collections, this painting genre remains one of the most difficult to study. This results from the fact that capriccios were usually not painted by top-class artists, and many paintings remain anonymous. The two paintings from Gdańsk museum’s collection stand out due to their stylistic features characteristic of the greatest creators of this painting genre.</p> Alicja Andrzejewska-Zając Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3967 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Gdyńska architectura militaris autorstwa Mariana Lalewicza https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3968 <p style="text-align: justify;">The complex of the Fleet Command and Navy barracks at Gdynia’s Oksywie is one of the most interesting examples of military architecture of the Second Polish Republic. The extensive urban and architectural complex was the work of one architect Marian Lalewicz; raised over a brief period of time, in its core it represented architectural homogeneity. It was one of the first projects on such a scale of the Polish army after Poland had regained independence. The whole was to be composed of the Fleet Command premises as well as the buildings of the Navy barracks, together with the organizational and technical infrastructure, and dwelling houses for non-commissioned officers and officers together with their families. Lalewicz laid out the whole complex using the radial scheme. The axis of the scheme was to be found in a roundabout closed from the north with a gatehouse on the layout of a quarter circle whose three gateways marked out three axes of the complex. The middle one led to the building of the Fleet Command, the right (eastern) was the backbone for the dwelling complex for the non-commissioned officers and officers, while the left one (western) led along auxiliary buildings to the non-commissioned officers’ house, and its eastward bifurcation continued to the barrack complex in a form of a square of buildings placed around the trapezium drill ground. The design having been created in 1924, its implementation conducted in stages was completed in 1931. The complex was subsequently added a hospital building, a garrison church, and, in 1934, the monument commemorating the Battle of Oliwa.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The classical forms Lalewicz echoed in his design for the Oksywie complex make one first of all recall the application of the legacy of the antiquity in shaping architecture characteristic of Jean Nicolasa Louisa Ledoux, though also the Italian Renaissance is referred to, particularly Sebastiano Serlio, and St Petersburg’s Neo-Classicism after 1910, with some impact of the oeuvre of such architects as Andriey Bielogrud, Vladimir Shchuko, or Marian Peretyatkovich, particularly such of his designs as Russia Trade Bank. Search for the form adequate to the architecture of power, or more strictly speaking its armed forces, made Lalewicz place his work within the network of both universal references: Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, urban layout of the imperial capital, and the national ones: perfectly associated by the contemporary with the Polish accomplishments of military architecture from King Stanislaus Augustus’ times and Napoleonic wars. The Oksywie Fleet Command and Navy barracks complex has remained one of the best and grandest architectural implementations not only from the period of the Second Polish Republic, but also of all modern architecture, of thoroughly thought-out urban layout, coherent stylistics, and transparent ideological message.</p> Małgorzata Omilanowska Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3968 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Dworzec Morski w Gdyni – historia i architektura na tle wybranych budynków morskich terminali pasażerskich w Europie https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3969 <p style="text-align: justify;">In the late 1920s, the architecture of marine terminals in Western European harbours started to change significantly. It was inspired by both the need to serve large numbers of passengers in a short time, but also the expectations regarding the quality of the facilities from tourists travelling on luxurious ocean liners. It was also a period when Gdynia became an important hub for emigrants travelling from Poland to Americas. The increasing number of passengers in the city resulted in the plans to construct a modern complex of a Marine Station. It was designed by the German Dyckerhoff &amp; Widmann Company with the support of the well known Polish architect Wacław Tomaszewski. The building was opened in December 1933 and provided various facilities for the passengers, as well as a fast and efficient passenger control. The architects used Modernist forms, which were typical of Gdynia of the period, and were seen as a manifestation of Polish modernity and cultural development. The innovative aspect of the Marine Station’s building was also the construction, especially shell vaultings of reinforced concrete. The key visual elements of the interior were patriotic decorations, which manifested the power of the new Polish state.</p> Szymon Jocek Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3969 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Nostalgia i mizeria socrealizmu: "Gertruda Wysocka – przodownica pracy" Juliusza Studnickiego jako alegoria realna https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3970 <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper is dedicated to one of the most outstanding works created in 1950 within the circle of the Sopot School, while at the same time one of the most interesting paintings of Polish Socialist Realism. Visual interpretation as well as historical-artistic interpretations focus on genealogical questions (reminiscence and paraphrase of A Bar at the Folies-Bergère by Edouard Manet, as well as references to 17th-century genre-allegorical representations of the Leiden School genre-related questions (portrait, genre scene, or allegory?), iconographic issues (representations of heroes of Socialist labour, iconography of temperaments), as well as stylistic ones (Socialist Realism versus Manet’s modernized realism). The formulated methodological interpretations have been defined by Gottfried Boehm’s existential hermeneutics of portrait, W.J.T. Mitchell’s animist iconology, intertextual perspective, and feminist-gender approach.</p> Hubert Bilewicz Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3970 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Artystyczny wystrój i wyposażenie trójmiejskich lokali gastronomicznych w okresie powojennym (1945-1989) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3971 <p style="text-align: justify;">The nature of almost every service facility involves constant modernization and adaptation to the changing reality and requirements of society. This means that the constantly improved interiors are subject to many changes, such as the introduction of new technological solutions. The last quarter of a century after the political transformation in 1989 brought about radical changes in the infrastructure of catering establishments located in the Tri-City. While many of them ceased to exist, a significant number of others were modernized, their interior design and furnishings completely changed. The original decorative elements, designer furniture, artistic fabrics, and lighting equipment, often designed by outstanding Tri-City interior architects and artists associated primarily with the State Higher School of Fine Arts in Gdańsk, have disappeared. The indicated projects, which are the most interesting from the artistic point of view, offer a review of the interior design of catering establishments from Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia. The restaurants were classified chronologically, taking into account changing trends and design styles: post-war years and the period of Socialist Realism (1949–1956), the artistic ‘thaw’ period and the presence of modernity in the period of ‘small stability’ (1956–1968), as well as the apparent ‘decade of luxury’ of the 1970s and 1980s. Apart from ‘modern’ interiors, there are also historical and regional arrangements. They are part and parcel of the trends and styles of Polish interior design and industrial design, and are characterized by comprehensive execution and often premium artistic level.</p> Katarzyna Kaus Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3971 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Kierunki rozwoju we wzornictwie fajansu włocławskiego w latach 1945-1991 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3972 <p style="text-align: justify;">The article is an attempt to summarize the history of the faience industry in Wloclawek, which goes back to 1873 and ends in 1991. Before WW II the city had a few main factories active, most significant of them being ‘Teichfeld and Asterblum’ and ‘Leopold Czamański’. The war took its toll on the faience industry: after 1945 significant efforts were made to revive it after a long break. It was then that the Polish Institute of Industrial Design decided to start its cooperation with artists in an attempt to revive Polish craftsmanship and industrial design, sending artists to work at the factories and cooperate with industrial specialists. This resulted in a series of courses conducted for the factory painters in Wloclawek, led by Antoni Buszek and later Helena and Lech Grzeskiewicz; the artists taught the often highly-specialised in their craft painters the basics of composition, encouraging them to compose their own decorations based on the newly-acquired knowledge as well as their previous experience. The courses brought very good results and were a step on the way to revive the unique style of Wloclawek’s faience. It is only after WW II that the Włocławek faience gained autonomy as its own product, without trying to mimic (in terms of design) porcelain, which at the time had already dominated the market as a more durable and ‘noble’ material. Władysław Bortnowski, who was at the time the factory’s artistic director, decided that the only way to stay on the market was to make unique, hand -painted products which had different assets than porcelain. His idea was to bring back the hand-painted flower patterns that had been used in Wloclawek during the interwar period, and that many of the older workers could remember and recreate. The new ways of thinking about creative processes in Polish industrial design also inspired some new trends; one of them being the so-called ‘new-look’, a style that had successfully made its way to Włocławek’s factories as well. Even though the modern-type faience was produced for a little over a decade, it is considered to be a significant milestone in the factory’s development.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The article underlines the importance of that strategic decision in the later development of the well -known style, which makes the factory’s products recognizable even today. The author also writes about the so-called faience Biennale, officially called that since 1973: the date marking the 100th anniversary of the faience industry in Wloclawek. 1973 was also the year of changes in the board structures of the factory. Working conditions were said to have worsened gradually, resulting in poorer quality products being released to the market. The period 1970–1980 also brought changes to the range of products sold, shifting the focus from table sets to decorative objects, such as figurines and vases etc.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;In the final pages the author tries to answer some questions, such as why the flower-patterned faience gained such popularity and what made the faience factory in Włocławek survive and flourish after WW II.</p> Anna Rafalska Copyright (c) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/3972 pią, 20 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0100