Porta Aurea https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea <p>Czasopismo powstaje z myślą o czytelnikach zainteresowanych historią sztuki i architektury, a tematycznie skupione jest na problematyce artystycznej szeroko rozumianego regionu basenu Morza Bałtyckiego. Sprofilowanie to nie ma charakteru wykluczającego, ale oznacza, że teksty poświęcone sztuce Gdańska, czy szerzej, Trójmiasta, Pomorza, północnych Niemiec, krajów Bałtyckich i Skandynawii stanowią główny trzon każdego tomu.&nbsp;</p> pl-PL hismo@ug.edu.pl (prof. dr hab. Małgorzata Omilanowska) czasopismaug@ug.edu.pl (Agnieszka Kranich-Lamczyk) Tue, 21 Dec 2021 14:01:21 +0100 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Miedzioryt Jana van Londerseela "Papież na Lateranie" według obrazu Hendrika Aertsa https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6401 <p>Architektura na miedziorycie <em>Papież na Lateranie</em> Jana van Londerseela powstała według nieznanego obrazu czynnego w Gdańsku malarza – Hendrika Aertsa. Pochodzący z Mechelen artysta był najpewniej uczniem Vredemana de Vriesa. Zmarł młodo, bo w 1603 r., ale architektura z jego obrazu służyła za wzór wielu malarzom wnętrz kościelnych. Badanie wykazało, że rycina Londerseela zawiera zarówno w sferze wizualnej, jak i w łacińskiej inskrypcji niezauważone dotychczas przesłanie skierowane przeciwko papieżowi i Kościołowi katolickiemu. Ten rodzaj konfesyjnej polemiki koresponduje z sytuacją w Holandii na początku XVII w., kiedy Londerseel wykonał rycinę, ale nie ma nic wspólnego z obrazem Aertsa. Na podstawie szczegółów odbitki można udowodnić, że gotycka architektura kościoła przedstawiona na rycinie jest odwróconym odwzorowaniem modelu namalowanego przez Aertsa. <em>Gabinet obrazów</em> Johanna Michaela Brettschneidera zachowany w Miejskim Muzeum Zamkowym w Rheydt, namalowany sto lat później, przedstawia fragment wnętrza kościoła Aertsa tak, jak prawdopodobnie wyglądało ono pierwotnie: wnętrza kościoła, o którego uroku decyduje wyłącznie architektura fantastyczna.</p> Rainer Kobe Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6401 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Rokokowe rzeźby z ogrodzenia pałacu Mniszchów w Gdańsku. Autorstwo – styl – program ikonograficzny https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6404 <p>In 1751, Jerzy August Mniszech purchased a plot in Długie Ogrody Street: the area where a large -scale residence was erected. Its designer was most probably Pierre Ricaud de Tirregaille. An important element in shaping the spatial composition of the entire palace and garden ensemble was formed by the main gate, characterized by an extremely dynamic, sculptural form, typical of Rococo art. At the top of the gate and on the fence posts there were figures: personifications of Minerva and Ceres, four putti representing the seasons and vases. At the beginning, the article presents the history and style of the sculptures. Then the question of attribution is discussed. In literature, Johann Heinrich Meissner is the most frequently indicated creator of the entire sculptural ensemble. This attribution, in view of the shortage of sources, requires confrontation with other, preserved works of the artist. Johann Heinrich Meissner (1701–1770) was born in Królewiec. He was present in Gdańsk, where from 1726 he owned a valued workshop. Having lived in the Old Town, near the Church of St Catherine, in 1755 he moved to Długie Ogrody where he located his studio, so he was a direct witness to the project carried out for Jerzy August Mniszech. Meissner’s workshop created, among other things, garden sculptures and elements of temple decorations. Among the sacred implementations, mention should be made of the decoration of the main altar in the Cathedral in Frombork, which includes four full -figure angelic figures, vases, flames and garlands made of pine wood. Meissner was also responsible for the statues of angels from the organ front in Gdańsk’s Church of St Mary, expanded in 1757–60. The soft modelling of forms precisely emphasizes the anatomy. Figures’ gestures are naturalistic. The sculptures in front of the Mniszech Palace are stylistically different from them: strongly stylized, exaggerated, they feature vibrating surface characteristic of the Rococo. Their authorship should therefore be associated with another sculpture workshop operating in Gdańsk in the mid -18th century. Another thread is the symbolic diagram of the fence decoration. In order to understand the ideological meaning of the figures in question, it is necessary to juxtapose them with the iconography found in Gdańsk’s art (e.g. Minerva decorated the façade of the Great Armory and the hall of the Main Town Hall, while the statues of Ceres were placed at the tops of tenement houses) and with European trends.</p> Alina Barczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6404 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Inspiracje Grigorija G. Gagarina i jego rola w procesie kształtowania stylu rosyjsko - -bizantyńskiego w architekturze dziewiętnastowiecznego Imperium Rosyjskiego – zarys zagadnienia https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6402 <p>The paper represents an attempt to outline Grigory G. Gagarin’s artistic interests and his influence on creating one of the national style variants in the 19th -century Russian Empire: the Russian -Byzantine style. This article is not only a selection of theoretician’s quotes, but also an attempt to create an appropriate background and clear context for his theses. Moreover, the paper is to constitute a coherent outline of his thoughts having an impact on the creating of the national style and the search for architectural inspiration from selected periods of history.</p> <p>An interesting fact is that because of Gagarin’s first attempts to develop consistent norms and determinants of inspiration, among others, for architects and artists, he created foundations to formulate in the future a clear theoretical assumption of the Russian -Byzantine style. What is more, the theoretician did not avoid the confrontation of Russian art with Western European culture. Gagarin tried to not only indicate the relationships between the evolution of specific styles in art and architecture, but also their mutual influences and consequences.</p> <p>In the paper’s narration another important thread in the theoretician’s activity is also mentioned: his attitude to the cultural heritage of the North and South Caucasus. In the 19th century, the region’s territories formed the southwestern borders of the Russian Empire, and moreover they were the destinations of Gagarin’s diplomatic activities for the Romanov dynasty and the Russian Empire.</p> <p>The paper is an introduction to further research not only into Gagarin’s position in the process of creating the national style in the Russian Empire in the19th century. Furthermore, the research will bring up his functioning in the Western European artistic-cultural society of that time and his attempts to find mutual inspiration in Western and Eastern Europe.</p> Marta Cyuńczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6402 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Polityka rosyjskiej Cerkwi prawosławnej wobec cudownych obrazów katolickiej proweniencji na wschodnich terenach dawnej Rzeczypospolitej w XIX w. na kilku przykładach https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6403 <p>Due to the liquidation of the Union in 1839 and the transfer of Catholic churches to the Orthodox Church after the rebellions of 1830–1831 and 1863–1864 in the territories of the former Polish -Lithuanian Commonwealth which were incorporated into the Russian Empire, a great deal of sacred art pieces of western -Christian art became property of the Orthodox Church. As per directions of the Church authorities, the images of Jesus Christ, Our Lady and the Saints of the Undivided Church could remain in Orthodox churches, while those of Catholic and Greek -Catholic Saints were to be&nbsp;given back to Catholics. The images that were left in Orthodox churches were to be changed to meet the Orthodox rules. That usually meant addition of an inscription or repainting of the image partially or fully.</p> <p>The situation was different in relation to miraculous images. After being transferred to the Orthodox churches they remained unchanged, even in the cases when their iconography was unacceptable for the Orthodox Church or when they represented Catholic Saints, such as Ignatius Loyola or Anthony of Padua. This was related to the effect miraculous images had on local communities. The cult of miraculous images was above -confessional; believers of different Christian confessions went on pilgrimages to them. Leaving these images as is they were aimed at converting Catholics to Orthodoxy to strengthen the position of the Russian Empire on the land of the former Polish - -Lithuanian Commonwealth. To justify the functioning of western -Christian images in the Orthodox Church, both new legends were developed stating the images had Orthodox origins and were taken by Catholics, and attempts of theological rationale were made. These activities were successful: the images that survived through the disasters of the 20th century are still in the cult of the Orthodox Church along with the legends of their Orthodox origin developed in the 19th century.</p> Volha Barysenka Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6403 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Działalność architekta Friedricha Fischera (1879–1944) w Gdańsku i Sopocie https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6405 <p>The person of the architect Friedrich Fischer has been somewhat forgotten, even though he played a meaningful role in the beginnings of the existence of the Free City of Gdańsk as its first conservator and the first head of the Ground Construction Office.</p> <p>Before and during WW I Fischer worked privately as an architect, mostly in the Gdańsk and Sopot area, and among chosen projects one located in Wrzeszcz, in Uphagena Street, as well as the architect’s own house at 30 Stefana Żeromskiego Street in Sopot can be named.</p> <ol> <li class="show">Fischer was also a scholar who obtained a doctorate in 1910 and prepared a postdoctoral thesis, as well as a lecturer at the Department of Architecture at the Technical University (until April 1925).</li> </ol> <p>In 1918, he became involved in building administration, carrying out projects for the Housing Estate Office, of which he was the head. He created designs of the street now known as Hallera Street in Wrzeszcz and plans of green areas on former fortification grounds. He also initiated works on the plan of Great Gdańsk, eventually known as the ‘Althoff plan’. In 1923–1925, he was the head of the Ground Construction Office.</p> <p>From this period his designs of the first version of the school in Pestalozziego Street in Wrzeszcz and the unrealised fair building in Gdańsk are known. He designed the completed housing estates in today’s Zbyszka z Bogdańca and Dubois Streets in Gdańsk - -Wrzeszcz as well as several churches for the Catholic community of the Free City of Gdańsk: St Anthony’s Church in Gdańsk -Brzeźno, the Church of Our Lady of Sorrows in Głęboka Street in Gdańsk - Knipawa, and the Church of Christ the King in the small town of Piekło, in the former Wielkie Żuławy District.</p> <p>Fischer was active as Conservator of Architectural Monuments for four years. During&nbsp;this period the function of Conservator of Historical Monuments was merged with the function of the head of the Ground Construction Office. During his service as conservator the preservation of the historical form of the city became a priority</p> <p>The model of proceedings in the Free City area established by Fischer constituted an important point of reference in the following years. He was also involved in the preparation of the Preservation of Historical Monuments Act proclaimed in 1923.</p> <p>In March 1925, Fischer moved to Hannover, where he became associate professor specialising in medieval architecture. He remained in that city and at its university until his death.</p> Ewa Barylewska-Szymańska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6405 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Gmach Gdańskiej Biblioteki Miejskiej przy ulicy Wałowej https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6406 <p>Following Germany’s unification in 1871, Gdansk was a major municipal centre and a port on the Empire’s map, however it was well past its heyday. In the Gründerzeit, it could not reach as quick a pace of development as other cities of the Reich, and by the late 19th century it did not boast any university. The attempt to catch up on the substantial delay in creating modern public architecture in Gdansk was only made after the fortifications had been dismantled (1895–97). A triangular plot close to St James’s Gate was reserved for the purpose of education and science. It was there that a seat of the city archive and the building of the Secondary School of SS Peter and Paul (Oberrealschule St. Petri und Pauli) were raised. The third edifice was planned as the new home for the Gdansk Library. The precious book collection, whose core was formed by the collection bequeathed by Joannes Bernardinus Bonifacius d’Oria of Naples in 1596, was kept in a former Franciscan monastery, and later in St James’s Church. Attempts to raise a new building to house the collection in the 1820s as designed by Carl Samuel Held failed. Neither was the plan to erect the new library building as an extension of the Dungeon and Prison Gate Complex implemented. It was only Karl Kleefeld’s design from 1901–1902 planning to raise an impressive Gothic Revival complex that finally came to life. Completed in January 1905, the Library welcomed the first readers already on 16 February.</p> <p>Kleefeld designed the building’s mass on the L -plan layout with a truncated corner and wings. The main reading room boasted elegant, sumptuous, and coherent wooden furnishing, and the gallery’s centrepiece was a ledge decorated with 14 panels featuring bas -relief cartouches with the emblems of the cities of West Prussia. Differing in size, the edifices, were given red -brick elevations with plastered details and glazed green filling, with a sgraffito frieze on the reading room elevation between the ground and first floors. It was the Gdansk Renaissance that dominated in public buildings’ architecture of the city in the last quarter of the 19th century. The resumed popularity of Gothic Revival in its local forms in Gdansk public buildings’ architecture, such as those in the afore - -described Kleefeld’s designs, resulted undoubtedly from a rapid growth of research into historic structures, yet on the other hand it reflected the return to the local tradition (Heimatschutz), which could be observed in the architecture of the German Reich at the time.</p> <p>Judged in the context of an extremely modest programme of public projects in Gdansk of the period, the creation of the Bildungsdreick with the edifices of the archive, library, and secondary school is to be regarded as a major event in the history of creating public architecture of the city.</p> <p>As seen against other projects of the time in other Reich cities, the Gdansk City Library stood out neither with its scale, nor innovatory character of the layout solutions. What, however, makes it a special facility are architectural forms that reveal its contribution to the search for the expression of the local tradition. This kind of an archaeological approach to the past and a compilatory additive method of juxtaposing quotes from various buildings, which may have also arisen from the lack of talent of the architect, were undoubtedly in decline in the early 20th century.</p> Małgorzata Omilanowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6406 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Wczesny okres twórczości Hanny Żuławskiej. Warszawa–Paryż–Gdynia https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6407 <p>Hanna Żuławska (1908–1988) was one of the most prominent artists associated with the Tri -City, and dealing with many fields of art: easel and polychrome painting, architectural mosaic, sgraffito, ceramics and small architecture. Her husband was a painter known on the coast: Jacek Żuławski. She is known primarily for her mature work in the 1950s and 60s; it was then that she showed true individuality. From post - -war times, Żuławska was also teacher and professor at the State Higher School of Fine Arts in Gdańsk and the manager of the Kadyny Ceramics Works. Little, if anything, is known of Hanna Żuławska’s work in the interwar period.</p> <p>In 1930–1934, Żuławska studied at the Warsaw School of Fine Arts, among others in the studios of Professors Felicjan Szczęsny Kowarski, Leonard Pękalski and Tadeusz Pruszkowski. It seems that Kowarski’s work in the fields of painting and monumental mosaics had a great influence on Żuławska›s later artistic activity. In the 1930s, Żuławska took part in exhibitions at IPS (Art Propaganda Institute).</p> <p>At that time, the artist experienced a period of fascination with the works of the members of the Paris Committee and Pierre Bonnard and Paul Cèzanne, which resulted in the pair of the artists, Hanna and Jacek, leaving for Paris on a scholarship in 1935. In Paris, the artist studied in the painting studio of Józef Pankiewicz, painted still lifes, city views and quite standard landscapes; she also visited museums and led a lively social life. In May 1938, the works of Hanna and five other Polish painters were presented at the prestigious Bernheim Jeune gallery in Paris. The exhibition was well received by critics in Poland.</p> <p>Hanna and her husband returned to Poland and settled in Gdynia in the autumn of 1938, where Żuławska established contacts with the artistic community of the city. In 1938, the artists joined the Gdynia branch of the Trade Union of Polish Artists and Designers, and actively participated in its exhibitions until the outbreak of World War II. In recognition of their contribution to the development of art in Gdynia, the Żuławskis also received state orders for a monumental painting decoration of the barracks’ common room at Redłowo, for the creation of paintings for the Chapel of the Hospital of the Sisters of Mercy at Kaszubski Square, and for the polychrome entitled ‘Apotheosis of Gdynia’ in the building of the Government Commissariat (designs not preserved).</p> <p>During the Nazi occupation, the Żuławskis were in Warsaw; in November 1944, the artist came to Łańcut near Lublin, where she stayed at an artistic house. In the autumn of 1945, Hanna and Jacek Żuławski together with other residents of the manor house, e.g.: Juliusz Studnicki, Krystyna Łada -Studnicka, Janusz Strzałecki, Józefa and Marian Wnuk, established the State Institute of Fine Arts in Sopot, transformed into the State Higher School of Fine Arts in Gdańsk.</p> Aleksandra Juszczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6407 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Nawiązania do tradycji budownictwa wiejskiego w architekturze Wolnego Miasta Gdańska w dobie narodowego socjalizmu https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6408 <p>After the establishment of the Free City of Danzig, the process of the renovation and inventory of arcaded houses (Vorlaubenhäuser) and timber -framed churches in the&nbsp;vicinity of Gdańsk began, along with the increasing scientific interest in them. At the same time, in numerous projects from the 1930s, the interest of architects in traditional rural construction, related to the orders of the Nationalist Socialist Party for certain types of structures, can be observed. In the suburbs of Gdańsk and Sopot, standard, posed as idyllic workers’ housing estates were founded, which were to combine the advantages of living in the countryside and in the city. The network of kindergartens of the National Socialist People’s Welfare (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt) as well as youth hostels used by the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) and the League of German Girls (Bund Deutscher Mädel) was expanded. According to the Blut -und -Boden ideology, a network of camps for the Land Service (Landdienst) for the Hitlerjugend, community houses for members of the NSDAP Party, and exemplary farms were also founded.</p> <p>The repertoire of local materials, traditional architectural details, as well as references in interior design were intended as manifestations of the regional identity, used by the National Socialist authorities to serve the purposes of the Party propaganda, which was creating the myth of an idyllic, strong, homogeneous national community and proving the uninterrupted continuity of German culture in the Free City of Danzig, despite its separation from the German Reich.</p> Jagoda Załęska-Kaczko Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6408 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Ikonografia witraży Wiktora Ostrzołka w gdańskim kościele Mariackim (1977–1980) https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6409 <p>In 1966, a commemorative decoration appeared inside St Mary’s Church in Gdansk: its main component was the painting showing Poland’s Baptism placed in the chancel. Meanwhile, a pillar by the Priests’ Chapel was decorated with a standard bearing striped concentration camp uniform cloth with numbers of priests -prisoners in Nazi camps. This referred directly to the décor of the Priests’ Chapel created not long before, and in which Polish priests murdered during WW II had been commemorated in 1965. Thus the millennial decoration of the chancel clearly associated the history of the Polish state with the history of Christianity in Poland, while the decoration of the Priests’ Chapel emphasized the martyrology of Polish priests. Both motifs were clearly continued in two large –size stained glass windows installed in the church in the late 1970s: one of them fills in the window in the Priests’ Chapel, while the other is to be found in the window closing the church’s chancel. Both were designed by Wiktor Ostrzołek, a leading stained glass designer in post -WW II Poland.</p> <p>The iconographic programme of the first refers to the martyrology of priests, yet it does not limit itself to priests -martyrs in recent history, but shows those connected with it from the very beginning: St Adalbert, Five Martyr Brothers, St Stanislaus, St John Sarkander, St Andrew Bobola and Maximilian Kolbe. Respective figures are interconnected with the use of a clear red line serving as a metaphor of the martyrs’ blood. Its continuity connecting St Adalbert with St Maximilian, thus the beginnings of the Polish state with the present, at the same time shows the continuity of the presence of the Catholic Church in Polish history.</p> <p>This continuity is even more unequivocally expressed by the iconographic programme of the chancel stained glass. Here it is the figure of Mary that stands out; she enshrouds the presentations referring to the Church’s mission, and in particular to the Church’s mission in Poland, in her protective mantle. A deep interconnection between the history of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church was presented in the three acts&nbsp;of&nbsp;entrusting Poland to God and Mary: the Baptism of Poland in 966, the Lvov Oath of John Casimir in 1656, and the Jasna Góra Pledge connected directly with the 1966 millennial celebrations.</p> Jacek Friedrich Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6409 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Trzy projekty gdańskich terenów rekreacyjno- -wypoczynkowych z lat siedemdziesiątych XX w. https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6410 <p>Leisure and recreational areas in Gdańsk during the times of the Polish People’s Republic is a poorly researched subject. There are very few lectures, publications, or studies on the topic; however, the state of research is not surprising because of the somewhat ambiguous nature of Gdańsk. The city is seen as a university centre, industrial centre, but not strictly as a place where the recreational function dominates. The article focuses on architectural conceptions of leisure and recreational areas during the seventies; it is fascinating how the architects of the time tried to create everyday recreational areas in this historic city, where two kinds of structures coexisted, combining solemn buildings from the past with everyday forms for the present man. The author’s main aim was to expose and describe in detail three of the most curious, but unrealized projects: ‘the seaside Park of Culture and Leisure in the Gdańsk agglomeration’, ‘the recreational centre over the flow of the Motlava River’ and ‘the bathing beach at the outlet of Karol Marks Street’.</p> Iga Tomaszewska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6410 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Przekształcenia znaku „Solidarność” projektu Jerzego Janiszewskiego w twórczości opozycyjnej lat osiemdziesiątych XX w. https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6411 <p>The ‘Solidarity’ logo designed by Jerzy Janiszewski in 1980 is one of the best -known Polish symbols of all time. In the 1980s, it was widely reproduced on various materials, especially including ‘popular’ works, namely samizdat, such as leaflets, banknotes, post stamps and cards, posters, also pins, or even… towels etc. They were essential information carriers evidencing that the underground organizations were still dynamically operating.</p> <p>This article is mainly an analysis of such ‘popular’ works which contain the ‘Solidarity’ logo. This symbol is set in various contexts: independently, in combinations with slogans or graphics, also as, e.g., editor’s signature etc. Nevertheless, they are not always the exact imitations of the ‘Solidarity’ sign; various factors led to a wide range of modifications (which were unintentional, such as imprecise copies of the letters) and transformations (which were intentional, such as representing the letters as people).</p> <p>This review is enriched with references to several contemporary works using the ‘Solidarity’ logo. They prove how the meanings of the ‘Solidarity’ sign have changed over the years: in the 1980s, it was the symbol of society united beyond different ideologies to fight against the communist regime; today, it is a symbol of groups united under common demands, which, however, might not be approved and shared by every Pole.</p> Katarzyna Szychta-Mielewczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6411 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Erwiderung auf die Polemik von Sławomir Jóźwiak zu meiner Monografie zum Hochmeisterpalast auf der Marienburg https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6412 Christofer Herrmann Prawa autorskie (c) 0 https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/portaaurea/article/view/6412 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100