Problemy Wczesnej Edukacji <p>W „Problemach Wczesnej Edukacji/Issues in Early Education” publikujemy oryginalne artykuły naukowe w językach polskim i angielskim, których tematyka wpisuje się w nurt badań nad dzieckiem i dzieciństwem oraz wczesną edukacją. Szczególną wagę przywiązujemy do tekstów o charakterze empirycznym, prezentujących wyniki poszukiwań badawczych w interesującym nas obszarze tematycznym.&nbsp;<br>Dążymy do tego, by powiązać namysł nad wczesną edukacją z innymi subdyscyplinami pedagogiki, takimi, jak: pedagogika ogólna, dydaktyka, pedagogika społeczna, pedeutologia, ale także z innymi dziedzinami wiedzy, czyli z filozofią i socjologią edukacji, antropologią kulturową, psychologią czy naukami prawnymi.<br>Nasze czasopismo adresowane jest do środowiska akademickiego, w tym zarówno do wybitnych naukowców i jak i do młodych badaczy, którym chcemy stworzyć warunki do prezentacji swoich badań.&nbsp;Chcemy też docierać do doradców metodycznych, nauczycieli-praktyków, studentów z obszaru nauk społecznych i humanistyki oraz osób zainteresowanych podejmowaną tu problematyką.</p> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego pl-PL Problemy Wczesnej Edukacji 1734-1582 Czas w uczeniu się. Analiza krytyczna perspektywy obiektywistycznej <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper is a critical analysis of time in learning, functioning in the objectivist approach to education. Referring to results of anthropological research and literary studies in this field, I justify in it the thesis that in transmissive teaching becomes an instrument for subjugating children. It is supported by the following realities of schooling: imposed time of children’s stay at school, an obligation to do homework and timeframe of “covering” textbooks, which leads to pupils being overloaded with school learning, wasting time at lessons, repeating years, or even being halted in time. The effect of the time of learning being seized by the time of teaching is petrification of the bureaucratic management of time, pretended learning and tabooism of the disturbing phenomenon of the temporary regime of learning.</p> Maria Groenwald Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 7 17 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.01 Obraz edukacji wczesnoszkolnej w wypowiedziach nauczycieli edukacji przedmiotowej <p style="text-align: justify;">A look at the adaptation of students crossing the second educational threshold in the perspective of constructivism makes it clear that it is important to reach ways of thinking about early childhood education of 4th grade teachers. The early-school education model adopted by them translates to a large extent into the perception and evaluation of the resources of the 4th grade, which, in turn, sets the direction of the teaching communication activity in the school class, creating an environment for the student’s adaptation process at the beginning of learning in the 4th grade. The presented research adopts a phenomenographic perspective of collecting and analyzing data from semi-structured interviews with Polish language teachers from one environment. The results reveal how teachers describe and value early childhood education as a source of 4th grade resources. These ways of thinking about early school education, focusing on its determinants, have been interpreted as discursive knowledge. Based on the theory of Bernstein’s socio-pedagogical codes, an attempt was made to describe the mechanism of consolidating this perception of early childhood education. The dominant teaching discourse reveals the depreciation of the child’s previous experience related to the conditions of early school education, e.g. one teacher, active learning and teaching methods, descriptive assessment; and thus strengthens the obviousness of the hardships and failures of the Fourth graders that have always been experienced.</p> Józefa Bałachowicz Monika Kupiec Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 18 29 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.02 Doświadczanie rzeczywistości szkolnej przez uczniów edukacji początkowej <p style="text-align: justify;">The teacher, especially at the stage of primary education, has a significant impact on the child’s development. The research intends to seek an answer to the main problem: How do early school teachers organize the education process for students due to key competences important for their functioning at subsequent stages of education? For that purpose, the experience of 387 children was examined in the following areas: possibilities of carrying out tasks in group work; the presence of outdoor education in school’s everyday life; the participation of experts from outside the school in the implementation of school tasks; using students’ various teaching resources, including multimedia, and undertaking research tasks. According to the following research results, teachers do not create conditions conducive to the acquisition of key competences by the students for their important function in the present and the future in school and beyond.</p> Renata Michalak Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 30 39 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.03 Zabawa narracyjna jako strategia sprzyjająca autentycznemu uczeniu się dzieci <p style="text-align: justify;">A narrative play is a strategy which was used while creating educational situations for children aged 6 to 9, in the <em>Narrative Environments for Play and Learning</em> research project. The process of build-ing the strategy and implementing it in practice was monitored in order to answer the question of the strategy’s meaning for creating a teaching environment. The observation of children and teachers, the interviews with teachers and the analysis of the collected empirical material in the form of audio and video recordings lead to a conclusion that a narrative play supports developing self-regulation in students (see: Arends 1994: 488–499; Filipiak 2012: 70–79). Some specific properties and the role of a teacher who is a facilitator genuinely engaged in its construction are characteristic qualities of a narrative play. It supports developing reflectiveness and reflection regarding such aspects as: educational problems, motives of one’s behavior, one’s own beliefs.</p> Joanna Szymczak Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 40 50 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.04 The Highly Sensitive Child as a challenge for education – introduction to the concept <p style="text-align: justify;">The main aim of this paper is to summarize available findings related to the subject of high sensitivity from both the educational and parenting perspectives. According to the authors of the concept of Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS), between 15% and 20% of the population exhibit such traits, therefore one has to say that it is necessary to raise the awareness of this subject amongst parents and teachers. High sensitivity may exhibit itself in many ways, depending on the environmental and other temperamental conditions. Understanding its main characteristics (DOES) will allow one to appreciate the potential of this condition instead of focusing on its deficiencies. Such a perspective opens up possible avenues of supporting the Highly Sensitive Child’s resources by both parents and teachers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A review was carried out to answer a research question by collecting and summarizing theo-retical and empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria. The study selection criteria was to find literature/paper reviews and primary studies published in indexed journals included in various databases and focused on Sensory Processing Sensitivity directly, transdisciplinary and ho-listic approaches were central to the process. In the research strategy, the following databases were consulted: PSYCinfo, Scopus and PubMed. The keywords sensory processing, sensitive, environ-mental sensitivity, education were placed in all electronic databases and set to be found in the titles, abstracts or keywords of the documents. No limits on dates were established. At the preparation stage, articles relevant to the topic were selected and supplemented with publications related to child development and educational context. The search was conducted from December 2018 to July 2019.</p> Monika Baryła-Matejczuk Małgorzata Artymiak Rosario Ferrer-Cascales Moises Betancort Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 51 62 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.05 Przedszkola w debacie polityczno-oświatowej Niemiec. W stronę edukacji, opieki i wychowania <p style="text-align: justify;">Contemporary pre-school institutions in Germany have ceased to be perceived solely as providers of care. Significant importance has been assigned to education and upbringing as equivalent categories. The change in approach is not only apparent in their organisation and functioning, but also in state policies, which clearly emphasise the importance of early childhood. The aim of the article is to analyse the political-pedagogical debate that has been in progress since 2005, as well as to scrutinise the adopted arguments and their consequences in the form of the ever changing early school education and care in Germany. The analysis of conditions that have contributed to bestowing preschools with such significance, not only in the process of early childhood development, but also in the process of more broadly understood social development, has also been recognised as equally important, as a result of which preschool institutions have gained importance in the area of political investment that is equal to that granted to schools. The analysis of educational reports and formal-legal guidelines on both federal and state levels is meant to illustrate the range of the introduced changes and the specifics of the German reform, which is perceived as an interlinked network and as cooperation for the sake of children and their families.</p> Inetta Nowosad Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 63 74 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.06 Dzieci w świecie problematyki finansowej – innowacyjny pakiet dla edukacji wczesnoszkolnej "Myślę, decyduję, działam – finanse dla najmłodszych" <p style="text-align: justify;">The article is dedicated to the issue of developing skills and acquiring economic knowledge in early school-age children, in particular in the field of financial education. The concept of the innovative educational tool “I Think, Decide, Act-finances for the youngest” and the process of testing this didactic material for two and half years in grades 1–3 of primary schools in Poland were presented. The purpose of the abovementioned tool is to provide children with cognitive and social educational situations for independent and creative activity that requires solving economic, financial and social problems. The main research methods were a parallel group experiment and an interview with teach-ers. The results of studies comparing the level of knowledge and financial-mathematical skills of children in the pretest and posttest indicate a statistically significant increase in the level in experi-mental group in comparison with the control one. The teachers’ opinions on the application of the innovative tool in school practice show its didactic and educational value, with a particular emphasis on the quality of proposed mathematical open-ended problems related to the practical context.</p> Małgorzata Żytko Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 75 85 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.07 O nieprzedstawieniach i twórczości. Raport z wstępnych badań nad abstrakcją w aktualizowaniu i stymulowaniu twórczego myślenia u dzieci w wieku wczesnoszkolnym <p style="text-align: justify;">This article is a report on the planned and conducted series of experimental art classes dedicated to children in early school age. The aim of the presented initial research was the verification of a working hypothesis assuming the positive influence of a planned and conducted art lesson class cycle inspired by abstraction, on the creative potential of the participants. In the research project presented and described below, abstraction has been treated as a potential factor stimulating creative thinking, the level of which has been identified by using Drawing Creative Thinking Test by K.K. Urban and H.G. Jellen (TCT-DP) in pre and post-experimental version. The research project was implemented on the basis of a quasi-experimental method, however – which must be emphasized – it has been based on the assumptions of action research and constructed on the basis of the ARTography category. 64 students from the first grade and two second grades of a primary school participated in the experimental class cycle. 47 pairs of drawings created on the basis of TCP-DP sheets have been analyzed and assessed. As a consequence, the distinguished working hypothesis has been initially confirmed – however, the presented research field requires further research, exploration and detailed analyses. The presented research and its initial results constitute a factor initiating the considerations regarding the possibility of applying and implementing non-standard solutions in art lessons, which – as it turns out, end up being solutions that are enriching and desirable, especially from the creative thinking perspective.</p> Iwona Tomas Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 86 99 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.08 The power of authority and the Montessori teachers’ (in)ability to learn – research intervention report <p style="text-align: justify;">The article concentrates on the issue of Montessori teachers’ attitude towards pedagogical knowledge they develop during different forms of training. The analysis presented in the text is based on quasi-experiment rooted in Critical Realism research paradigm. Eighty-two Montessori teachers participated in a workshop and were asked to comment on eight different quotes. Half of them knew that these extracts had been taken from the publications by Maria Montessori and the other half did not have that knowledge. As a result, the first group of teachers formulated numerous critical remarks whereas the other one concentrated on positive interpretations. This experiment might shed some light on the power of authority and limitations to transform teachers’ implicit pedagogical presuppositions. The teachers that took part in this experiment were provided with the opportunity to problematize their personal teaching theories.</p> Jarosław Jendza Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 100 109 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.09 Edukacyjne walory gry "Minecraft". Analiza narracji uczniów i edukatorów <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper shows the educational aspects of video game Minecraft in primary education. It is based on a systematic review and interviews conducted with fourteen players of the aforementioned game as well as an analysis of interviews with the creator of Young Programmer Academy and an educator of an IT class. The statements of users (players) and educators point to the potential uses of the game in learning and acquiring social skills. In the game, students create their own worlds, develop their imagination and spatial thinking, gain knowledge about the basics of technology, physics and chemistry, as well as enrich their knowledge about nature. Probably for those reasons the game is popular in Norwegian and Swedish schools, where units based on Minecraft are often incorporated by teachers into their lessons.</p> Dorota Zaworska-Nikoniuk Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 110 121 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.10 Recenzja książki prof. dr. hab. R.M. Łukaszewicza, Wrocławska Szkoła Przyszłości PLUS, czyli lepsze jest możliwe. Działania praktyczne, wizje i projekcje nowego – innego – twórczego, Wydane nakładem Fundacji Wolne Inicjatywy Edukacyjne, Wrocław 2020 Joanna Maria Garbula Copyright (c) 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 48 1 125 128 10.26881/pwe.2020.48.11