Problemy Wczesnej Edukacji <p>W „Problemach Wczesnej Edukacji/Issues in Early Education” publikujemy oryginalne artykuły naukowe w językach polskim i angielskim, których tematyka wpisuje się w nurt badań nad dzieckiem i dzieciństwem oraz wczesną edukacją. Szczególną wagę przywiązujemy do tekstów o charakterze empirycznym, prezentujących wyniki poszukiwań badawczych w interesującym nas obszarze tematycznym.&nbsp;<br>Dążymy do tego, by powiązać namysł nad wczesną edukacją z innymi subdyscyplinami pedagogiki, takimi, jak: pedagogika ogólna, dydaktyka, pedagogika społeczna, pedeutologia, ale także z innymi dziedzinami wiedzy, czyli z filozofią i socjologią edukacji, antropologią kulturową, psychologią czy naukami prawnymi.<br>Nasze czasopismo adresowane jest do środowiska akademickiego, w tym zarówno do wybitnych naukowców i jak i do młodych badaczy, którym chcemy stworzyć warunki do prezentacji swoich badań.&nbsp;Chcemy też docierać do doradców metodycznych, nauczycieli-praktyków, studentów z obszaru nauk społecznych i humanistyki oraz osób zainteresowanych podejmowaną tu problematyką.</p> pl-PL (dr Grażyna Szyling) (Agnieszka Kranich-Lamczyk) Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 American children – the challenges they are facing and helpful solutions <p>The goal of this paper is to analyze four major challenges that American children were facing well before COVID-19 and to discuss some initiatives and programs available to help children and families to overcome or lessen the disease effect. First, we will present information from a variety of research, webinars, and conferences addressing the challenges and programs aimed at alleviating the effects of adverse childhood experiences. Second, we will analyze data from surveys sent to Midwest American early childhood teachers about which programs are the most implemented, and/or helpful.</p> Krystyna Nowak-Fabrykowski Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Czy program 500+ podwyższył osiągnięcia szkolne uczniów z biedniejszych rodzin? <p>Two models of the poverty effect on school achievement were defined: insufficient expenditure and refusal of recognition. The first of them was verified, using the selective increase in the income of the poorer part of the Polish parents’ population in 2016–2019 by the state support for families with children, Family 500+. Data on achievement in mathematics and science and attitudes towards school and learning of Polish fourth-graders from two editions of the TIMSS survey: 2019 and 2015 were compared. In the 2019 cohort, there was no increase in the achievement of lower-class students, despite the fact that their families received the largest funds from the 500+ program. The model of insufficient expenditure has not been validated but has not been overturned either due to validity limitations of the study.</p> Krzysztof Konarzewski Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Rodzice o dobrej publicznej szkole dla swoich dzieci. Fenomenograficzna ilustracja <p>The purpose of this article is to try to empirically face the phenomenon of a good public school. However, not by following legislation demonstrating its public status, but by means of a simple question addressed to the parents of pupils in grades I to III as to how this phenomenon is understood by them. Based on a conversation with her parents, the author has made a phenomenographic reconstruction of the concepts behind the importance of a good public school. It turned out that, according to the parents, a good public school is identified with modern teaching methods (a), it is treated as an instrument for preserving the social status of the student (b), a tool for conveying the desired values (c), its meaning lies in shaping the disposition to learn. The author shows that in a cultural sense, the revealed categories of description show that it is difficult for us still to go beyond instrumental rationality in search of the meaning of a modern good public school and public good education.</p> Alicja Jurgiel-Aleksander Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Dziecko w ramach wojny. Przypadek Donbasu <p>The paper presents the results of ethnographic research on the mechanism of war framing combined with an analysis of the representation of children. Based on the analysis of materials from the Russian media (the case of crucifixion of a boy in Slavyansk) and ethnographic interviews with teachers in Kramatorsk, the author asks questions about the mechanisms of constructing the ontologies of child subjects by institutions of power in the conditions of war and the differentiation of grief after them. The conducted analysis, based mainly on the theses of Judith Butler, shows the differences in the construction of child subjects on both sides of the conflict. The author also points to the similarities in the treatment of children’s bodies, understood universally as the projection surface of affects,especially those related to patriotism.</p> Wojciech Siegień Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Digital skills of pupils aged 6–9 – children’s and adults’ perspective <p>In this article, I presented the results of the research aimed at identifying how early school age children create their digital skills. Despite the fact that the topic of digital skills seems to be an empirically well-recognized area, there is still relatively little research on children aged 6–9 years. I presented the conducted research both from the perspective of a child and an adult: digital experts and teachers. I conducted both qualitative research (in-depth interview with thirty children and ten digital experts) and quantitative research (survey with 717 teachers). Such a confrontation of three perspectives allowed for a full view of the digital world of the child. The research showed the thinking community of children and digital experts, and the opposing (in many aspects) early childhood education teacher’s way of thinking.</p> Agnieszka Iwanicka Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Program profilaktyki nadużywania Internetu i mediów elektronicznych: komunikat z badań ewaluacyjnych <p>The paper describes the outcomes of evaluating the Internet and electronic media abuse prevention program conducted among 3rd-grade primary students. The literature review shows that a significant group of children and youth abuse ICT. The overuse of modern communication technologies may lead to a decrement in social functioning, psychological wellbeing and educational achievements. The risk of smartphone overuse is higher among youngsters; therefore, prevention programs should address this particular group.</p> <p>The evaluation was designed in a quasi-experimental scheme. Two measurements were conducted on a sample of 1207 students. Wilcoxon test indicates the significant increment in knowledge about communication rules and relationships on the Internet, about the influence of ICT on health and safety and emotional and difficult situation management skills, which were treated as securing factors. Moreover, a significant increment of the monitoring activities among parent was observed.</p> Bartłomiej Walczak, Marcin Sochocki Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 „Obyś swoje dzieci uczył” – rodzice najmłodszych uczniów o edukacji zdalnej podczas pierwszej fazy pandemii COVID-19 <p>In the conducted research, I was interested in the assessment of selected aspects of distance learning by parents of pupils in grades 1–3 of primary schools, on which I focused my attention in the undertaken research. Their aim was to diagnose the needs and expectations of parents regarding distance learning in the future, based on their experiences during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was conducted with the use of qualitative interviews conducted on 157 people, and supplemented by the analysis of the “Librus” distance learning reports. They showed that parents did not question the purposefulness of introducing distance learning model, but were critical of the forms of its administration, especially when lessons were not conducted online. Parents were very reluctant to send tasks to students via the Electronic Journal by teachers and the requirement to fill them in and send them back for evaluation. The teacher’s involvement in conducting online lessons, while activating students, was assessed positively. In the case of such young children, parents were disturbed by the lack of care in day-care centres, the closure of schools and the need to educate children at home.</p> Dorota Zaworska-Nikoniuk Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Czy nuda w szkole może stanowić barierę w edukacji? <p>Analysing the phenomenon of boredom in the context of educational barriers, I assume that the boredom is the one of the negative emotions. We experience boredom not only at school. That is why, the goal of research in pedagogy should be getting to know its specificity. Unfortunately, research work on boredom is not undertaken willingly. This has consequences: we do not know enough about the emotion of boredom and thus – we are not aware of existence of its consequences and limitations. In the article I present the results of research conducted in a group of students and teachers. The aim of the study was to understand how they see, feel and describe boredom. In the article I focus on barriers such as lack of knowledge about boredom, social learning of boredom, inhibition of conversation and communication process in the classroom, training of social isolation, feelings of fear, the threat of lower school achievements, poorer functioning and well-being of the student, equation of boredom with lack of being busy, and acceptance of boredom as a taboo.</p> Iga Kazimierczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Przygotowanie dzieci do pobytu w żłobku w opinii rodziców i opiekunów w żłobkach <p>Entrusting each child to the nursery is a difficult task for both the child, parents and the staff of the institution. The article presents the results of research aimed at distinguishing and assessing the effectiveness of activities aimed at preparing children under three years of age to stay in a nursery according to parents and nurses in nurseries. Among the activities preparing children to stay in a nursery, the following were distinguished: behaviors aimed at getting to know the nursery, behaviorscombining the home and nursery environment, and behaviors creating a positive atmosphere around the institution, also behaviors that constitute closer and further preparation for a stay in a nursery. The research shows that parents who are preparing children to nursery stay mostly use behaviors aimed at getting to know the nursery, e.g. talking about the nursery, which are a part of closer preparation, but in the carers’ opinion, it would be more effective to make the home rhythm similar to that in the nursery and to create a positive atmosphere around the institution.</p> Ewelina Świdrak Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Stosunek studentów do stosowania kar cielesnych wobec dzieci <p>The article presents the results of research on social attitudes of university students against violence. Specifically, their reference to claims that corporal punishment is applied to children. The research results indicate a higher approval of men. The place of origin is not a differentiating indication. Only 43% of respondents know about the legal prohibition of corporal punishment. The final part reflects on preventive measures that could be addressed to students.</p> Joanna Frankowiak Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Epizody z codzienności dzieci nieśmiałych – studium przypadku rodzeństwa <p>The task of the author of the article is to reflect on research that is rarely undertaken in pedagogy from the theoretical and research perspective. A case study of instrumental and narrative siblings in early-school age who was diagnosed with extreme shyness was used here. Free interviews with elements of narration with the mother, grandmother and sibling teachers were used here, as well as nobservation focused on the researcher’s problem.</p> Dorota Bronk Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 „Nie jesteś za młody, żeby zmieniać świat” – studium przypadku zjawiska dziecięcego aktywizmu klimatycznego <p>A social movement, which unites people around the idea of caring about the future of the Earth, climate and intergenerational justice is called climate activism. It has been on the rise due to the involvement of an increasing number of children and the youth. The aim of the study was to carry out an in-depth review of the phenomenon of children’s climate activism. The collective case study served as the main method. 15 cases of young climate activists from all around the world were analysed. The study sample consisted of young activists aged 7–12. The study revealed that the fight for a better tomorrow for all people and the whole planet is the essential conviction, which lies behind actions of young climate activists. By becoming public actors they demand appropriate actions to be taken by adults. The voice of children can be heard through petitions, open letters, campaigns, protests and speeches. Children’s climate activism is a form of children’s disagreement towards the passiveness of adults in the light of the growing environmental crisis. The causative power of children is seen as a phenomenon emerging from the network of relations established between various social actors.</p> Małgorzata Kowalik-Olubińska Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Obrazy rodziców w poradnikach dla nauczycieli. Raport z badań wstępnych <p>The article attempts to identify the images of parents presented in the selected teachers’ guides. Based on a content analysis of these guides, the author identified two ways of presenting parents: first portraying parents as difficult, demanding and confrontational, and second presenting them as partners of the school. The conducted analysis also shows two approaches to building relationships between teachers and parents: first based on a strategy of conflict and confrontation with parents, and second based on a positive attitude towards parents and a joint work of teachers and parents for the benefit of children. In conclusions the author attempts to search for the hypothetical contexts of constructing the images of parents and their relationships with the school presented in the teachers’ guides.</p> Beata Adrjan Prawa autorskie (c) 0 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200