Schulz/Forum <p><strong>„Schulz/Forum”</strong> to czasopismo poświęcone osobie i dziełu Brunona Schulza, a także inspirowanym przez niego utworom literackim i artystycznym, które powstały po jego śmierci. Publikowane w półroczniku artykuły w założeniu powinny jednak wykraczać (i niejednokrotnie wykraczają) poza tak zarysowane pole problemowe – na dwa sposoby. Po pierwsze, starają się włączać schulzowskie tematy w nurt współczesnej humanistyki. Po drugie, odwrotnie – ich autorzy na łamach „Schulz/Forum” stawiają dziełu Schulza pytania wyrastające z dzisiejszej refleksji literaturoznawczej, antropologicznej czy filozoficznej.</p> Fundacja Terytoria Książki, Wydział Filologiczny, Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego pl-PL Schulz/Forum 2300-5823 Ciała pozbawiane powierzchni. Imago <p>Both drawings (the one from the first page of the fascicle and the other from the outer side of the cover) show two degrees, two stages of the decomposition of form. In the same process, bodies lose their integrity. They were shown by Schulz as a series of leaping aspects which are disconnected, hence discontinuous. The drawings were made in the 1930s. The beginning of the draughtsman’s development did not anticipate such a great catastrophe of bodily forms. In his works from the second and in part also third decade of the 20<sup>th</sup> century Schulz defined human figures precisely and unambiguously. Then, however, the proud poses which he took when drawing himself (e. g., in his narcissistic Lvov portrait) or other figures (Budracka or Weingarten) probably could not be repeated. In the final decade of his life (and artistic activity) Schulz was drawing differently, perhaps because he perceived himself and the others in a different way. The body? The draughtsman presents it as just a cluster of vibrating lines. A self-portrait? It is possible only as a psychological study, an exaggerated caricature that stresses individual traits or an icon of oneself (the big head with a hat on top, a small size). In hundreds of compulsive sketches drawn in the 1930s even those principles were not respected any more. The bodies that Schulz drew then, no matter if it was his own body or someone else’s, often approach a boundary behind which there is only trembling. Displacement and movement. Schulz’s sketches do not search for form. They are testimonies of its destruction or maybe better, its palpitation, solution and scattering.</p> <p>For the eye, the body is a phenomenon of the surface. It is only the reduction of distance in an act of love (or aggression) or even a common handshake that change that state. Perhaps then the problem of Schulz’s representation of the body is reduced to perception. The drawn body has no smell or weight (or taste – it is not “meaty”). One cannot even touch it. A hand that makes an attempt to touch naked women, who in Schulz’s drawings take majestic and provocative poses, touches only a sheet of paper. The drawn body exists just for the eye. Thus the last chance for the existing body is keeping its surface. Why is it then that the body from Schulz’s late drawings loses its integrity, why does it so often fall apart under our eyes? What is the body for Schulz-the draughtsman and Schulz-the writer? How does he experience his own corporeality? How does he see himself? How do others see him?</p> Stanisław Rosiek Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 3 4 10.26881/sf.2019.13.01 „Dziwna awersja”. O wystawach Schulza <p>The paper sums up and corrects information on the exhibitions in which Schulz took part as well as reconstructs the circumstances under which they were organized. Today we know about ten such exhibitions ordered in series separated by several year-long breaks: 1920-1923, 1930, 1935. His participation in the last show, organized in 1940 by a Soviet institution, cannot be considered fully voluntary. Of the prewar exhibitions only those in Lvov – in 1922 and 1930 at the Society of the Friends of Fine Arts [<em>Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych</em>] and in 1935 on the premises of Union of Polish Artists [<em>Związek Zawodowy Polskich Artystów Plastyków</em>] were noticed by the press, mainly local newspapers. Apparently Schulz, who understood the significance of exhibitions in building one’s artistic biography, did not care much about them. He needed constant support in the selection and evaluation of his works since he was not sure of their value. Probably in the beginning he could count in that respect on his close friends from Drogobych and then those from Lvov. In fact, however, he lived outside the artistic circles and sporadic contacts with other artists did not provide him with necessary inspiration or encouragement to present his works in public. The available records imply that only in 1938, perhaps reinforced by his position in the world of literature, Schulz was ready to plan exhibitions, but not in Lvov and not even in Poland. Exhibitions allowed him also to reach out to other people. They gave him a chance to find an understanding spectator, but also required disclosing oneself. Regardless of their subject matter, drawings are records of the artist’s gestures, i.e. his corporeality. Presenting them in public must have been for Schulz a temptation to tear off his disguise, but it also provoked fear to do so. It was only the graphic art that guaranteed a safe distance between the artist and spectator thanks to the technological processes that separated a single print from the artist’s body. One must remember that most Schulz’s exhibits were the <em>cliché-verres</em>, while practicing other kinds of graphic techniques was his unfulfilled dream. Thus, the sequences of Schulz’s presentations at exhibitions, separated by years of absence, are related to the episodes of his biography, reflecting his attitude toward self-presentation that oscillated between desire and aversion.</p> Urszula Makowska Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 5 34 10.26881/sf.2019.13.02 Ciało mitu. Piłsudski Brunona Schulza <p>The present paper focuses above all on a variant of the legend of Józef Piłsudski presented by Bruno Schulz in his literary works. It is definitely not the best known literary incarnation of the myth of Polish First Marshall, neither is it the most quoted one, like excerpts from&nbsp; <em>General Barcz</em> by Józef Kaden-Bandrowski or from Jan Lechoń’s book of poetry <em>Silver and Black</em> [<em>Srebrne i czarne</em>]. Still, Schulz gives us a very interesting analysis of the formation of this legend, and we can find in it Schulz’s own approach and style. His views on the formation of this legend are in fact ahistorical, free of the specific context. When he writes that “unbelievable historic maturity was incarnated in this man,” he is closer to heroic narration rather than sociological analysis. It is not a coincidence then that Schulz’s sense of historic moment is intertwined with his understanding of myth and his literary mythology. The author of <em>The Street of Crocodiles </em>worked on his essay “How Legends Come Into Being” [<em>Jak powstają legendy</em>] when he was finishing “Spring,” which brings the two texts closer and gives a historical incentive for a parallel reading of both, which is also justified by their content. Schulz puts Piłsudski in his own symbolic domain and makes him an agent/actor of his own narration. The problem of his individual importance or eminence is confronted with the views of Thomas Carlyle and Edmund Burke. The aim of the paper’s author is not just a close reading of Schulz’s text, but juxtaposing it with a few other analyses of the phenomena of birth, rise, and death of the legend. Karol Irzykowski was one of the most clear-headed analysts of those processes and that is why his views are quoted in the fragments devoted to a “socio-cultural process” which he treated not as an esoteric phenomenon but as a conscious strategy of influencing people. A short analysis of the quotation from Piłsudski about the role of legends and the oppressiveness of the legendary discourse in Polish culture is also important. Piłsudski, who understood the vampirical character of legends, became a prisoner of Schulz’s creative imagination in his essay.</p> Eliza Kącka Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 35 46 10.26881/sf.2019.13.03 Ucieleśnione sytuacje komunikacyjne w prozie Brunona Schulza <p>The topic of the paper is the problem of the embodiment of communication in Bruno Schulz’s fiction. According to a number of critics, such as Wojciech Wyskiel, Krzysztof Kłosiński, Włodzimierz Bolecki, and Andrzej Sulikowski, in Schulz’s short stories communication by dialog is hardly present. The author proposes a different approach to the problem, based on a key role of the corporeal conditions of communication. Reading Schulz, one must identify the point of view from which individual texts are written, usually unspecified by some named character (most often the “Father”), but depending on the body which performs various actions or perceives the world in a definite way. Thus, to understand Schulz’s fiction it does not make sense to focus on dialogs, but instead the reader should recognize and analyze a bodily perspective, both sensual and affective, i.e. its strata that are particularly well rooted in the basic cognitive abilities. Next to those sensual and affective perspectives, the narration is also determined by higher cognitive skills, such as memory and the ability to pass value judgments. Still, they do not contribute to one coherent perspective, but rather reveal that the narrational subject of the story has been “patched” or made of various perspectives – the child’s body sees and feels, while the subject that remembers and speaks is definitely an adult. This refers in particular to the “Father” figure, behind which the writer concealed in many passages the experience and behavior of the child. A context for such an interpretation can be found in the works of Jean Piaget from the 1920s, analyzing the child’s animism and polemical against the Cartesian concept of the subject, as well as today’s proposals referring to Graham Harman’s speculative realism and childhood studies. However, the Schulzean model of the child’s metaphysics has little to do with utopia – it is rather an insight in some kind of universal suffering of the matter, as in the case of the panopticon figures which turn out to be embodied cases of misunderstanding. The child’s retreat from the communication with adults also implies many problems. That troubled communication seems to be a condition of deep reception.</p> Paweł Tomczok Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 47 62 10.26881/sf.2019.13.04 Schulz poetów „ośmielonej wyobraźni” (preliminaria) <p>The paper addresses the popularity of the person and work of Bruno Schulz in one of the trends in Polish poetry, represented by the generation born in the 1970s, placing it in the context of the writer’s earlier reception (e.g., in the works of the poets of older generations, such as Marian Jachimowicz, Tadeusz Różewicz, Jerzy Ficowski, Anna Frajlich, and Jarosław Gawlik). This trend has been usually referred to with a metaphorical term “bold imagination” and called “imiaginativism”, and its main representatives are Roman Honet, Tomasz Różycki, Radosław Kobierski, and Bartłomiej Majzel. Close to that group are also Ewa Elżbieta Nowakowska, Dariusz Pada, and Mariusz Tenerowicz. All of them consider Schulz, who called the entire genuine literature “poetry,” their mentor and patron, both as a writer and a graphic artist, whose heritage includes also the works that are unfinished or lost, and as such, they encourage continuing his ideas (such as the novel <em>Messiah</em>). For them, he is also the founder of a “trend” based on the primacy of imagination, visions, the mythicization of reality, and a creative approach to cultural traditions. The poets have been also inspired by Schulz’s literary legend whose elements are his double Polish and Jewish identity, the family and erotic psychodramas, life in a provincial and multicultural Galician town as well as the necessity to combine a literary career with the humdrum teacher’s job and his tragic death in the Holocaust. Referring to the motifs drawn from Schulz’s life and work, the imaginativists, poets and fiction writers, write apocrypha and elegies in which Schulz continues his “posthumous life.” The author considers all the modes of his presence in the poetry of the “bold imagination”: as a literary precursor, as the favorite master, as an emblem of the Holocaust, and as a protagonist of a biographical legend. She interprets the programmatic statements of Honet, Majzel, and Różycki, where Schulz figures prominently, right before other highly appreciated poets, writers, and artists: Rilke, Kafka, Trakl, and Schiele. Then she interprets the early poems by Honet, Kobierski, Nowakowska, and Pada, which include the characteristic motifs of Schulz’s fiction: a sanatorium, a phantasmagoric town, the Book, a comet, and the realities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the <em>belle époque</em>. It has been stressed that the later Schulzean “biographical apocrypha” of the imaginativists (Tomasz Cieślak’s coinage), which develop the alternative versions of his life, are rooted in the projects of alternative histories (“side courses of time,” the “thirteenth months”) to be found in his fiction, as well as the visionary ways of prolonging life of the dead (particularly in “The Sanatorium under the Sign of an Hourglass” and the “Treatise on Tailor’s Dummies”). The Schulzean poems of the imaginativists are full of biographical details – their authors, imitating the poetics of their master, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing his texts or referring to his life experience and vicissitudes, write first of all about themselves. Schulz’s biography and work turn out to be an unusually flexible medium, a figure of the contemporary (particularly Polish) artist, and a mirror for the writers of late modernity, who get a chance to understand themselves and perhaps confirm their own poetic calling.</p> Magdalena Rabizo-Birek Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 63 85 10.26881/sf.2019.13.05 Schulz, duchy i meblościanka <p>The paper presents an analysis of the “Schulzoid” novel by Dominika Słowik, <em>Atlas: Döppelganger</em>, which addressed the topic of passing from adolescence to adulthood during the Polish systemic transformation. The author’s starting point is the famous interpretation of Schulz’s fiction by Artur Sandauer in his essay “The Degraded Reality” [<em>Rzeczywistość zdegradowana</em>], based on a claim that Schulz represented in his own way the experience of the decomposition of the known world as a result of the capitalist expansion in the early 20<sup>th</sup> century. The analysis focuses on the figure of the grandfather and the transformation itself. The former is the central character in the narrator’s mythology of childhood: he keeps telling fascinating stories about life at sea, on the other hand being a fantasist who tries to alleviate his sense of exclusion from the new reality. The systemic transformation has been represented in Słowik’s novel by a series of antinomies as well. The nostalgic and sublime descriptions of the material conditions at the turning point have been combined with the pictures of degradation and trash. Then the novel is placed against the background of the literature of the 1990s, summed up by Olga Drenda’s essay, <em>Duchologia polska</em>. Słowik remembers the material conditions of the period of the systemic transformation and the trashy, though also sentimental, aesthetics of the historical moment when she and other authors of her generation were children. This makes the author of the paper compare their writing with Schulz’s postulate of the return to childhood. Yet in Schulz’s fiction childhood is the source of a private mythology – the images that constitute the writer’s imagination. The writers of the 1990s make a turn toward the reminiscences of childhood to revise critically the myths of the historical turning moment and to articulate their own and their generation’s experience of the transformation.</p> Marcin Romanowski Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 86 101 10.26881/sf.2019.13.06 Schulz niesceniczny? <p>Many theater reviewers consider <em>Cinnamon Shops</em> and the <em>Sanatorium under the Sign of the Hourglass</em> to be unspecific, impossible to translate into the language of the theater. Paradoxically, Schulz's theater reception is still growing, new performances, happenings and performances are created. The question arises whether today, in the era of post-dramatic theater, there is still a category such as “indecency” or should literary works be divided into those that can be shown in the theater and those that are not suitable for it. The article confronts the embarrassing concept of “indecency” on the example of Bruno Schulz's prose. It juxtaposes the harmful voices of critics with the rich theatrical reception of his work. It is an attempt to cleanse Schulz's work of accusations of indecency as a category now obsolete, anachronistic.</p> Balbina Hoppe Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 102 108 10.26881/sf.2019.13.07 Powierzchowność Schulza <p>It is high time to point out that superficiality as a feature of Bruno Schulz’s motifs is not something to be ignored. In Schulz’s short stories superficiality serves as an underestimated&nbsp; genre of perception that allows one to notice the multiple (erotic, psychic, social, theatrical) qualities spread or concentrated on the surface of creatures. Paul Valéry wrote in <em>L’idée fixe</em>, “What lies deepest of all in man is the&nbsp;skin.” In Schulz’s fiction this <em>dictum</em> proves to be true without a paradox. The present paper is an attempt to consider the characters of Schulz’s literary universe in terms of superficiality. There, corporeality and psyche – practically every essence – are covered with multiple layers: clothes, meanings, the density of libido, and mystery. But the temptation to go down to the core has to be resisted to concentrate on the perceived sensual surface, rather than hunt the ever eluding content, the intangible <em>eidos</em>. It seems that Schulz tried to evoke the potential of the emballage, which makes it possible to explore the overlooked but still meaningful covers. Covers, layers, and surfaces that people are accustomed to become so obvious and transparent that they can easily become equivocal. That is where we start to perceive them as emballage – the <em>terra incognita</em> inspiring the foretaste; the membrane to project individual impressions; a “superficial” medium which triggers the game between the visible and the invisible. The outer wraps, unlike the symbol, do not reach to the depth of phenomena; instead, the spectator’s attention is focused on the surface, leaving the shape, contours or the content of whatever lies behind to guesswork. The covered thing manifests its material presence and the mystery of its form and that is what seems to attract the narrator of Schulz's stories the most: the language of facial expressions, the traces of personality left on the skin, exteriors, and appearances. They tempt themselves, by giving a hunch of something extraordinary – all the more valuable because they cannot be translated, understood, exposed or verified. The author provides an overview of the “superficial” motifs in Schulz’s stories.</p> Helena Hejman Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 109 118 10.26881/sf.2019.13.08 Ono <p>Polish translation of two chapters from Georg Groddeck's epistolary novel <em>Das Buch vom Es</em> (1923).</p> Georg Groddeck Tadeusz Zatorski Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 119 133 10.26881/sf.2019.13.09 Ono i psychoanaliza <p>Polish translation of Georg Groddeck's scientific essay <em>Es und die Psychoanalyse</em> (1925).</p> Georg Groddeck Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 134 143 10.26881/sf.2019.13.10 Między wyobraźnią romantyczną a literacką moderną. Georg Groddeck w lustrze psychoanalizy <p>The aim of the present paper is to introduce the theory of a German physician and so-called “wild psychoanalyst” Georg Groddeck. During World War I, after contacting Sigmund Freud, Groddeck has started to develop his own psychoanalytic theory in his scientific as well as literary writings. In 1923 he published a novel entitled <em>The Book of the It </em>(<em>Das Buch vom Es</em>), in which he discussed and reinterpreted Freud’s theory. By introducing the category of the “It” (<em>das Es</em>), Groddeck aimed to elaborate on Freud’s concept of the unconscious, which he considered too restricted and reduced to what the Viennese psychoanalyst defined as the conscious and the preconscious. The author points out to the importance of the discussion between Freud and Groddeck, which began as early as in 1917 in their letters. The publication of <em>The Book of the It</em> coincide with Freud’s treatise <em>The Ego and the Id</em> (<em>Das Ich und das Es</em>) written the same year. The author analyzes the similarities as well as the differences between Freud’s and Groddeck’s concepts of the It (<em>das Es</em>). Groddeck’s theory is presented in the light of German philosophical and literary tradition. The paper addresses the problem of Groddeck modernist writing strategies, such as combining psychoanalysis with literature and with different life-writing genres which are seen as his way to create a new language in the scientific discourse of his time. The author emphasizes the importance of two main categories in Groddeck’s writings, which have animated his entire theory. One is imagination, deeply rooted in romanticism, the other is self-analysis related to the modernist understanding of autobiography. While imagination represents Groddeck’s general doubt in the objectivity of science, especially in a linear progress in medicine, self-analysis is linked to his conviction that every discourse – not only literary, but also philosophical or psychoanalytic, has an autobiographical, hence also intimate dimension.</p> Agnieszka Więckiewicz Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 144 154 10.26881/sf.2019.13.11 Radość indeksowania („Sklepów cynamonowych" i nie tylko) <p>Indexing Schulz’s fiction is a joyful activity, which is easy to realize. Whoever has not tried it yet, definitely should. Those who do not wish to give it a try must draw satisfaction from reading the following reports and explanations: (1) Indexing is an active way of approaching a text, in particular a literary work which nowadays is rarely supplemented with an index. It is something more than just reading, although without perusing a text first, it is impossible to do it. Indexing is an attempt to spread over the perused text a network that consists of the elements which come from it. An index is a kind of map: it reflects the text, and consequently the world in the text, which means that it can function as a guide; (2) A crucial problem is that indexing is an activity on the borderline separating the represented world and the language which represents it. This borderline is very often fluid and indefinite, hence misleading. The indexer must continually return to the fundamental question whether he or she refers to the thing or to the word which names it (and creates it in literature); (3) The indexer’s starting point is always the <em>textum</em>. Moving word by word, the indexer slowly turns into a spokesperson of the represented world, by self-appointment representing the interest of the literary being. Indexing that grows out of reading is a proto-interpretation. Thus, in indexing a bias (and a sense of commitment) are natural and even desirable since they make it possible to come up with a “hypothesis of the hidden whole of the work” which, close to the text, starts to organize reading and work on the index; (4) If indexing is to be something more than just making a register of linguistic forms which are evidently present in the <em>textum</em>, but tries to reach further, beyond words (and particularly to the world which goes beyond itself), it should take into consideration a state which may be called the state of ontological ebullition. It encompasses both the represented world and the passages between that world and the <em>textum</em> – the act of its creation and the act of the reader’s transgression of that creation at the moments when, to use Schulz’s metaphor, “it diffuses beyond its boundaries.” The indexes allow us to identify those passages as they atomize the <em>textum</em>, dividing the literary tissue into single fibers. This means that the object of indexing is not only the <em>textum</em> and the represented world, but also, and perhaps even in the first place, the writer’s imagination which stations (and rules) on the borderline between words and things.</p> Stanisław Rosiek Copyright (c) Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 155 171 10.26881/sf.2019.13.12 Ciało / części ciała / wydzieliny. Indeks do „Sklepów cynamonowych” <p>A literary index of body, body parts and exrcetions in Schulz's <em>Cinnamon Shops</em>.</p> Jakub Orzeszek Copyright (c) 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 172 190 10.26881/sf.2019.13.13 Księga Twarzy. Rysunki Brunona Schulza w Bystrzycy Kłodzkiej <p>Bruno Schulz’s drawings in which we may find the faces of his friends and colleagues,&nbsp;the students and teachers of the Drogobych high school, have been scattered. Most of&nbsp;them perished during World War II. Some of those which have been preserved now&nbsp;belong to private collections. Thanks to a favorable coincidence, some pencil sketches&nbsp;by Schulz have been found in such a collection. They show an intriguing young woman,&nbsp;Stanisława Szczepańska, who in 1934-1936 worked as an unpaid teacher at the Drogobych&nbsp;high school. There she met Schulz who drew her portraits during school breaks as well&nbsp;as during lessons, when he would come in, take a seat in the last row, and draw her face.&nbsp;Until now little has been known about Szczepańska. After so many years it is worth&nbsp;disclosing a secret: who was she? What happened to her later? How did it happen that&nbsp;Schulz noticed her? How was it possible to save the drawings? The present paper provides&nbsp;answers to these and many other questions as the author has made an attempt to show&nbsp;how Szczepańska’s biography became a part of Schulz’s artistic heritage. Pencil sketches&nbsp;definitely belong to a more general project of the Drogobych artist as exercises in portraying&nbsp;faces both in drawing and fiction. Studying faces was very important to Schulz.&nbsp;In his work, the drawing practice and fiction are closely related to each other. To find out&nbsp;more about them, it is essential to find and save Schulz’s scattered works. This postulate&nbsp;has been articulated in the paper supplemented with the reproductions of Schulz’s sketches&nbsp;and photographs from the Hoffmann family collection. The portraits of Szczepańska tell&nbsp;a unique story – about charm, the art of seeing, and Schulz’s Book of Faces.</p> Magdalena Wasąg Copyright (c) 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 13 191 212 10.26881/sf.2019.13.14