Contemporary Economy <p>Contemporary Economy (Współczesna Gospodarka; ISSN 2082-677X) is a peer-reviewed, open-access scientific journal, published by the Institute of Maritime Transport and Seaborne Trade, University of Gdansk. It addresses issues of importance to both academics and business.</p> en-US (Dr. Jacek Grodzicki) (Agnieszka Kranich-Lamczyk) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF IMMIGRATION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE POSSIBILITY OF LIMITING THE SCALE OF THIS PHENOMENON <p>The aim of this study is to assess the scale and effects of influx of people from Africa and the Middle East to European Union countries and to present the objectives of the “Marshall Plan with Africa”, which aims to support African economic activation and intensify the economic links within this region. The assessment also addresses the risk of escalation of migration to Europe and European Union initiatives aimed at containing the African population within their countries. The author focuses on the activities presented in the first pillar of the “Marshall Plan” which provide for improving the investment climate in African countries, including the ease of doing business, developing trade and establishing a free trade area, and ratifying the Trade Facilitation Agreement (FTA). The paper is based on the primary literature on the subject under study and the sources of data include Eurostat, UN, WTO and Africa Infrastructure Knowledge Program.</p> Dorota Turek ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND AUTOMATION AND ROBOTISATION OF PROCESSES AS FACTORS INFLUENCING STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Determining impact which Artificial Intelligence, Robotization and Autom</span><span data-contrast="auto">a</span><span data-contrast="auto">tion have and will continue to have on the labour market in the processing industry.&nbsp;</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:120,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Method</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Literature review, statistical data and data from industry reports. Deduction and comparative analysis.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:120,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> In the course of the work, a review of the literature on the subject was carried out and the issue of artificial intelligence, as well as robotization and automation of produ</span><span data-contrast="auto">c</span><span data-contrast="auto">tion was defined, and in addition, it has been demonstrated how important factor of pr</span><span data-contrast="auto">o</span><span data-contrast="auto">duction is labour. It presents examples of the use of artificial intelligence in the modern economy and presents the probability of replacing human work by artificial intelligence systems. Data from research reports and statistical analyses were used in the context of labour market analysis in industries and economies with the highest degree of automation and robotization. Conclusions were presented, which implement the set objective and are the basis for conducting research in the areas indicated by the authors.&nbsp;</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:120,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">In the course of </span><span data-contrast="auto">work,</span><span data-contrast="auto"> we defined what the labour is, its productivity and measurement methods. Data from research reports were presented, showing the probability of changes in the labour market in relation to specific occupations, due to the use of artificial intell</span><span data-contrast="auto">i</span><span data-contrast="auto">gence. The relationship between artificial intelligence and process automation and robot</span><span data-contrast="auto">i</span><span data-contrast="auto">zation is described. The </span><span data-contrast="auto">above-mentioned</span><span data-contrast="auto"> studies allowed the authors to demonstrate some important relations between the described factors.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:120,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Keywords</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">: labour productivity, artificial intelligence, robotization and automation</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:1,&quot;335551620&quot;:1,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:120,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">JEL Classification</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">: J01, O12, O30</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:1,&quot;335551620&quot;:1,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:480,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Arkadiusz Sylpaczuk, Michał Żynda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 THE EFFECTS OF THE COMMON FISHERIES POLICY ON THE THEORY OF THE AVAILABILITY OF MARINE RESOURCES <p>The aim of the paper is to present issues connected with responsibility in the fishery industry. The paper discusses the ‘tragedy of common.’ An attempt was made to formulate proposals for how to increase the efficiency of marine resource management and reduce the problem of declining fisheries. The publication analyses the current Common Fisheries Policy in the context of overfishing. It will take a great deal of serious effort for fishermen, scientists and politicians to solve the problem of the Baltic Sea. The rebirth of fish stocks will create healthier ecosystems and greater reproduction of fish populations. A higher number of fish schools may result in more balanced catch figures. It is expected that profits will increase and thereby result in more jobs and higher salaries, leading to a greater overall profitability of the fishing sector.</p> <p>JEL classification: Q 22</p> Magdalena Gielo-Politewicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 OPPORTUNITIES TO USE INNOVATION PARTNERSHIP IN PUBLIC INVESTMENT <p><span data-contrast="auto">In a&nbsp;globalisedworld,&nbsp;innovationis&nbsp;the driving force of the economy. In Poland, the public sector can support innovation to a large extent thanks to the Public Procurement Law, amended in 2016, which introduced a new procedure - innovation partnership. Judging by the scale of public spending, public procurement can become a powerful tool for the development of innovation in the economy. The aim of this article is to examine how innovation partnership can influence the effectiveness of investment projects. The assessment of processes related to the purchase of innovative solutions by the public sector with the use of public procurement and the innovation partnership mode shows that the use of this mode in various sectors of the economy may significantly improve the quality of tasks performed by them. In the study, the model method was applied based on the evaluation of the practice of using innovation partnerships in selected countries and the analysis of the transferability of these solutions to Poland. The evaluation&nbsp;took into account&nbsp;the specificity of public procurement procedures and innovation partnerships resulting from legal conditions and the national socio-economic environment. Weaknesses in the application of this procedure were identified, which cause that the innovation partnership is not a commonly used mode of investment projects implementation, and recommendations were formulated in order to&nbsp;reversethis&nbsp;trend.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:120,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">JEL Classification:&nbsp;</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">O30, O31, O38</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:1,&quot;335551620&quot;:1,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:480,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Justyna Bednarz-Szymak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 HOW TO PREVENT AND DEFEND AGAINST MOBBING IN A WORKPLACE? <p>The phenomenon of mobbing has been recognized by researchers, psychologists, lawyers and legislators as very harmful. However, employees suffering from mobbing in the workplace can be protected in many ways. This article aims to show the most important ways of protecting against mobbing in the workplace. Our work identifies psychological forms of support. We put an emphasis on victim and persecutorpersonalities as well. We also show our recommendations concerning prevention of this form of harassment in an organizational perspective. The next part of the article explains how important is the legal aspect of mobbing and protection of employees’ personal rights: we write about the case-law cited in the Labour Code, the Civil Code and the Criminal Code. Particular emphasis is placed on the Polish labour market.</p> <p>JEL classification: M5 Personnel Economics, J7 Labor Discrimination, I1 Health</p> Zbigniew Kohnke, Jacek Winiarski ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 ARIMA MODEL USED TO ANALYZE THE DEMAND FOR SWIMMING POOL SERVICES <p><span data-contrast="auto">Many&nbsp;factors&nbsp;influence&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="auto">customer&nbsp;preferences&nbsp;among&nbsp;those&nbsp;who&nbsp;choose&nbsp;active&nbsp;leisure</span><span data-contrast="auto">. A&nbsp;wide&nbsp;range&nbsp;of market&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="auto">productsmakes&nbsp;for&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="auto">many&nbsp;opportunities, and&nbsp;sports&nbsp;facilities&nbsp;are&nbsp;required&nbsp;to be&nbsp;fully&nbsp;prepared&nbsp;to&nbsp;provide&nbsp;services. It&nbsp;is&nbsp;helpful&nbsp;to&nbsp;create&nbsp;forecasts&nbsp;that&nbsp;enable&nbsp;to&nbsp;determine&nbsp;the&nbsp;predictable&nbsp;number&nbsp;of</span><span data-contrast="auto"> </span><span data-contrast="auto">clients.&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="auto">An&nbsp;example&nbsp;prediction&nbsp;made&nbsp;with&nbsp;respect&nbsp;to&nbsp;swimming&nbsp;pools&nbsp;is&nbsp;presented&nbsp;in&nbsp;this&nbsp;article</span><span data-contrast="auto">. For&nbsp;this&nbsp;purpose, the ARIMA model was&nbsp;used,&nbsp;based&nbsp;on the&nbsp;assumption&nbsp;that&nbsp;the&nbsp;value&nbsp;of the&nbsp;endogenous&nbsp;variable&nbsp;is&nbsp;affected&nbsp;by the&nbsp;value&nbsp;of&nbsp;this&nbsp;variable&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="auto">lagged</span><span data-contrast="auto">in&nbsp;time.</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">JEL&nbsp;classification</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">: C2, C22.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:567,&quot;335559737&quot;:567,&quot;335559738&quot;:120,&quot;335559739&quot;:480,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Mieczysław Pawlisiak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 FORECASTING PRODUCTION VOLUME IN A PLASTICS ENTERPRISE <p>The functioning of production enterprises is based on satisfying the needs of customers through the timely manufacture of products in accordance with the demand existing on the market. The availability of the offered range of products is guaranteed by a correct preparation of forecasts of potential orders. This article presents a multiple-regression-method-based tool supporting the planning of production volumes in an enterprise depending on the calendar month. Reliability analysis of the developed model through the analysis of residuals and their autocorrelations and partial autocorrelations is also presented.</p> <p>JEL classification: C2, C22.</p> Małgorzata Grzelak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100 INVESTMENT EFFICIENCY OF LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES IN GERMANY: APPLICATION OF A TWO-STAGE SBM <p>Purpose – To prove the robustness of the efficiency-measuring model against potentially system-relevant disturbances to company variables such as SIZE, ROA, solvency and organizational form.</p> <p>Methodology – In the first stage, the established model is applied using the SBM to measure insurance efficiency. The underlying data sets are from the twenty biggest life insurance companies (2008-2017) in Germany. In the second stage, the established model is examined for its robustness against disturbance variables. Several disturbance variables are introduced individually to the system and examined for their influence by three econometric methods, Tobit regression, OLS and the fixed-effect model. This approach allows a comparative analysis of the results with respect to the systemic relevance of every added variable. In the end, the accuracy of the second stage is compared through the Spearman test.</p> <p>Findings – The comparative analysis of all three econometric techniques brought ROA as an efficiency-influencing variable. Furthermore, both proved econometric models Tobit and OLS are SBM-suitable with cross-sectional data. Further evidence for SBM compatibility are found for Tobit and the fixed-effect model with panel data.&nbsp;</p> <p>JEL classification: C510, C520</p> Thomas Krupa, Kirils Farbarzevics, Bassam Salame ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0100