Associations between COVID-19 risk perceptions, behavior intentions and worry
Słowa kluczowe:risk perceptions, COVID-19, behavior intentions, worry
Risk perceptions are central to health behavior, but some types of risk perceptions may be more strongly connected to behavior than others. This research examined different risk perceptions of COVID-19 and their respective associations with behavior intentions and worry.
Participants and procedure
U.S. college students (N = 248) and general adults (N = 300) reported their risk perceptions of COVID-19 – including absolute numerical, verbal, comparative, and feelings of risk – as well as their worry and intentions to do things such as get vaccinated.
Although most risk perceptions related to intentions and worry, feelings of risk were the most strongly and consistently related. The associations showed that the higher people’s feelings of risk were, the greater were their intentions and worry.
Assessing feelings of risk of COVID-19 may provide the best insight into people’s perceived threat of this virus.
Atkinson, T. M., Salz, T., Touza, K. K., Li, Y., & Hay, J. L. (2015). Does colorectal cancer risk perception predict screening behavior? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38, 837–850. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-015-9668-8.
Betsch, C., Wieler, L. H., Habersaat, K., & COSMO group (2020). Monitoring behavioural insights related to COVID-19. The Lancet, 395, 1255–1256. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30729-7.
Blalock, S., DeVellis, B., Afifi, R., & Sandler, R. (1990). Risk perceptions and participation in colorectal cancer screening. Health Psychology, 9, 792–806. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-618.104.22.1682.
Brewer, N. T., Chapman, G. B., Schwartz, J. A., & Bergus, G. R. (2007). The influence of irrelevant anchors on the judgments and choices of doctors and patients. Medical Decision Making, 27, 203– 211. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272989X06298595.
Brewer, N. T., Weinstein, N. D., Cuite, C. L., & Herrington, J. E. (2004). Risk perceptions and their relation to risk behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 125–130. https://doi.org/10.1207/ s15324796abm2702_7.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). United States COVID-19 cases and deaths by state. Retrieved from https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-datatracker/?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww. cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fcasesupdates%2Fcases-in-us.html#cases_totalcases [accessed October 12, 2020].
Champion, V. L., & Skinner, C. S. (2008). The health belief model. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education (4th ed., pp. 45–65).
Jossey-Bass. Cori, L., Bianchi, F., Cadum, E., & Anthonj, C. (2020). Risk perception and COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 3114. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093114.
de Zwart, O., Veldhuijzen, I. K., Elam, G., Aro, A. R., Abraham, T., Bishop, G. D., Voeten, H. A., Richardus, J. H., & Brug, J. (2009). Perceived threat, risk perception, and efficacy beliefs related to SARS and other (emerging) infectious diseases: Results of an international survey. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 30–40. https://doi. org/10.1007/s12529-008-9008-2.
Dillard, A. J., Fagerlin, A., Dal Cin, S., ZikmundFisher, B. J., & Ubel, P. A. (2010). Narratives that address affective forecasting errors reduce perceived barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Social Science & Medicine, 71, 45–52. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.02.038.
Dillard, A. J., Ferrer, R. A., Ubel, P. A., & Fagerlin, A. (2012). Risk perception measures’ associations with behavioral intentions, affect, and cognition following colon cancer screening messages. Health Psychology, 31, 106–113. https://doi.org/10.1037/ a0024787.
Dillard, A. J., Ubel, P. A., Smith, D. M., ZikmundFisher, B. J., Nair, V., Derry, H. A., Zhang, A., Pitsch, R. K., Alford, S. H., McClure, J. B., & Fagerlin, A. (2011). The distinct role of comparative risk perceptions in a breast cancer prevention program. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 42, 262–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-011-9287-8.
Dryhurst, S., Schneider, C. R., Kerr, J., Freeman, A. L. J., Recchia, G., van der Bles, A. M., Spiegelhalter, D., & van der Linden, S. (2020). Risk perceptions of COVID-19 around the world. Journal of Risk Research, 23, 994–1006. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669 877.2020.1758193.
Evangeli, M., Pady, K., & Wroe, A. L. (2015). Which psychological factors are related to HIV testing? A quantitative systematic review of global studies. AIDS and Behavior, 20, 880–918. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10461-015-1246-0.
Ferrer, R., & Klein, W. M. (2015). Risk perceptions and health behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 5, 85–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.03.012.
Ferrer, R. A., Klein, W. M., Persoskie, A., Avishai-Yitshak, A., & Sheeran, P. (2016). The tripartite model of risk perception (TRIRISK): Distinguishing deliberative, affective, and experiential components of perceived risk. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50, 653–663. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-016-9790-z.
Gaube, S., Lermer, E., & Fischer, P. (2019) The concept of risk perception in health-related behavior theory and behavior change. In M. Raue, B. Streicher, & E. Lermer (Eds.), Perceived safety. Risk engineering (pp. 101–118). Springer.
Gidengil, C. A., Parker, A. M., & Zikmund-Fisher, B. J. (2012). Trends in risk perceptions and vaccination intentions: a longitudinal study of the first year of the H1N1 pandemic. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 672–679. https://doi.org/10.2105/ AJPH.2011.300407.
Grimley, C. E., Kato, P. M., & Grunfeld, E. A. (2020). Health and health belief factors associated with screening and help‐seeking behaviours for breast cancer: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of the European evidence. British Journal of Health Psychology, 25, 107–128. https://doi.org/10.1111/ bjhp.12397.
Gurmankin Levy, A., Shea, J., Williams, S. V., Quistberg, A., & Armstrong, K. (2006). Measuring perceptions of breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, & Prevention, 15, 1893–1898. https:// doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0482.
Hay, J. L., McCaul, K. D., & Magnan, R. E. (2006). Does worry about breast cancer predict screening behaviors? A meta-analysis of the prospective evidence. Preventive Medicine, 42, 401–408. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.03.002.
Ibuka, Y., Chapman, G. B., Meyers, L. A., Li, M., & Galvani, A. P. (2010). The dynamics of risk perceptions and precautionary behavior in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10, 296. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334- 10-296.
Janssen, E., van Osch, L., de Vries, H., & Lechner, L. (2011). Measuring risk perceptions of skin cancer: Reliability and validity of different operationalizations. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 92–112. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910710x514120.
Janssen, E., Waters, E. A., van Osch, L., Lechner, L., & de Vries, H. (2014). The importance of affectively-laden beliefs about health risks: The case of tobacco use and sun protection. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10865-012-9462-9.
Janz, N. K., & Becker, M. H. (1984). The health belief model: a decade later. Health Education and Behavior, 11, 1–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019818401 100101.
Kanadiya, M. K., & Sallar, A. M. (2011). Preventive behaviors, beliefs, and anxieties in relation to the swine flu outbreak among college students aged 18-24 years. Journal of Public Health, 19, 139–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-010-0373-3.
Katapodi, M. C., Lee, K. A., Facione, N. C., & Dodd, M. J. (2004). Predictors of perceived breast cancer risk and the relation between perceived risk and breast cancer screening: a meta-analytic review. Preventive Medicine, 38, 388–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ypmed.2003.11.012.
Klein, W. M. (1997). Objective standards are not enough: Affective, self-evaluative, and behavioral responses to social comparison information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 763– 774. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1243.
Klein, W. M. P. (2002). Comparative risk estimates relative to the average peer predict behavioral intentions and concern about absolute risk. Risk, Decision, and Policy, 7, 193–202. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S1357530902000613.
Klein, W. M. P., & Stefanek, M. E. (2007). Cancer risk elicitation and communication: Lessons from the psychology of risk perception. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 57, 147–167. https://doi.org/10.3322/ canjclin.57.3.147.
Li, Y., Luan, S., Li, Y., & Hertwig, R. (2021). Changing emotions in the COVID-19 pandemic: a four-wave longitudinal study in the United States and China. Social Science & Medicine, 285, 114222. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114222.
Lipkus, I. M., Klein, W. M., Skinner, C. S., & Rimer, B. K. (2005). Breast cancer risk perceptions and breast cancer worry: What predicts what? Journal of Risk Research, 8, 439–452. https://doi. org/10.1080/1366987042000311018.
Loewenstein, G. F., Weber, E. U., Hsee, C. K., & Welch, N. (2001). Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 267–286. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.267.
Magnan, R. E., Gibson, L. P., & Bryan, A. D. (2021). Cognitive and affective risk beliefs and their association with protective health behavior in response to the novel health threat of COVID-19. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 44, 285–295. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10865-021-00202-4.
McCaul, K. D., Schroeder, D. M., & Reid, P. A. (1996). Breast cancer worry and screening: Some prospective data. Health Psychology, 15, 430–433. https:// doi.org/10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.1990.
Meier, B. P., Dillard, A. J., & Lappas, C. M. (2021). Predictors of attitude toward and intention to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a nationally represented sample in the U.S. Journal of Public Health. https:// doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab013.
Merlo, E., Sicari, F., Frisone, F., Costa, G., Alibrandi, A., Avena, G., & Settineri, S. (2021). Uncertainty, alexithymia, suppression and vulnerability during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Health Psychology Report, 9, 169–179. https://doi.org/10.5114/ hpr.2021.104078.
Merrill, R. M., Kelley, T. A., Cox, E., Layman, A. B., Layton, J. B., & Lindsay, R. (2010). Factors and barriers influencing influenza vaccination among students at Brigham Young University. Medical Science Monitor, 16, PH29–PH34.
Mullens, A. B., McCaul, K. D., Erickson, S. C., & Sandgren, A. K. (2004). Coping after cancer: Risk perceptions, worry, and health behaviors among colorectal cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 367–376. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.751.
Park, E. R., Ostroff, J. S., Rakowski, W., Gareen, I. F., Diefenbach, M. A., Feibelmann, S., & Rigotti, N. A. (2009). Risk perceptions among participants undergoing lung cancer screening: Baseline results from the National Lung Screening Trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 268–279. https://doi. org/10.1007/s12160-009-9112-9.
Paulos, J. A. (2020, February 18). We’re reading the coronavirus numbers wrong. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/18/ opinion/coronavirus-china-numbers.html.
Prentice-Dunn, S., & Rogers, R. W. (1986). Protection motivation theory and preventive health: Beyond the health belief model. Health Education Research, 1, 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/1.3.153.
Renner, B., & Reuter, T. (2012). Predicting vaccination using numerical and affective risk perceptions: The case of A/H1N1 influenza. Vaccine, 30, 7019–7026. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.09.064.
Schou-Bredal, I., Grimholt, T., Bonsaksen, T., Skogstad, L., Heir, T., & Ekeberg, Ø. (2021). Optimists’ and pessimists’ self-reported mental and global health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway. Health Psychology Report, 9, 160–168. https:// doi.org/10.5114/hpr.2021.102394.
Sheeran, P. (2002). Intention-behavior relations: a conceptual and empirical review. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 1–36). Wiley.
Shiloh, S., Wade, C. H., Roberts, J. S., Alford, S. H., & Biesecker, B. B. (2013). Associations between risk perceptions and worry about common diseases: a between- and within-subjects examination. Psychology & Health, 28, 434–449. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/08870446.2012.737464.
Slovic, P., & Peters, E. (2006). Risk perception and affect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 322–325. https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467- 8721.2006.00461.x.
Slovic, P., Peters, E., Finucane, M. L., & MacGregor, D. G. (2005). Affect, risk, and decision making. Health Psychology, 24, S35–S40. https:// doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.24.4.S35.
Weinstein, N. D. (1988). The precaution adoption process. Health Psychology, 7, 355–386. https://doi. org/10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.525.
Weinstein, N. D., Kwitel, A., McCaul, K. D., Magnan, R. E., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F. X. (2007). Risk perceptions: Assessment and relationship to influenza vaccination. Health Psychology, 26, 146–151. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.206.
Windschitl, P. D. (2003). Measuring and conceptualizing perceptions of vulnerability/likelihood. Paper presented at the Conceptualizing and Measuring Risk Perceptions Workshop, February 13-14, Washington, DC.
Winterbottom, A., Bekker, H. L., Conner, M., & Mooney, A. (2008). Does narrative information bias individual’s decision making? A systematic review. Social Science and Medicine, 67, 2079–2088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.037.