Time perspective, future anxiety, and hope for success in individuals awaiting bariatric surgery


  • Kinga Tucholska Uniwersytet Jagielloński
  • Bożena Gulla Uniwersytet Jagielloński
  • Anna Grabowska Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum
  • Piotr Major Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum

Słowa kluczowe:

obesity, bariatric surgery, time perspective, hope



The paper focuses on the problems of temporal functioning of obese individuals and of individuals prepared for bariatric treatment. The experience of time heavily weighs on many areas of human functioning, everyday activity, planning and achieving goals, engaging in pro-health behaviours, and in consequence on the quality of life and on physical health. Contingent on numerous factors, obesity may be related to focusing on particular aspects of time perspective. The aim of the study was to determine the specificity of particular temporal dispositions in individuals prepared for bariatric surgery, and thus to devise suitable post-op psychological interventions.

Participants and procedure

The study sample comprised 28 individuals (60.7% women, mean age M  =  43.82 years, SD  =  10.01, mean BMI M  =  44.83  kg/m2 , SD  =  6.51) awaiting bariatric surgery. The  data were collected individually with the following pen-and-paper questionnaires: the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Dark Future Scale, and the Polish adaptation of Snyder’s Adult Hope Scale, which is named the Hope for Success Questionnaire.


The results showed the prevalence of present hedonistic time perspective in the obese. With regard to future anxiety or the hope for success, no significant deviations from the general population were observed.


The results indicate that this group is in need of temporal psychotherapy aimed at balancing the time perspective. The results may also be interpreted through the lens of contextual determinants connected with task orientation preceding the surgery.


Download data is not yet available.


Aamodt, S. (2016). Dlaczego tyjemy od diet. Niezamierzone konsekwencje naszej obsesji na punkcie odchudzania [Why we gain weight from diets. The unintended consequences of our obsession with losing weight]. Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka.

Adams, J. (2012). Consideration of immediate and future consequences, smoking status, and body mass index. Health Psychology, 31, 260–263. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025790.

Adams, J., & Nettle, D. (2009). Time perspective, personality and smoking, body mass, and physical activity: an empirical study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 83–105. https://doi. org/10.1348/135910708X299664.

Adams, J., & White, M. (2009). Time perspective in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and body mass index. Health Psychology, 28, 83–90. https:// doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.28.1.83.

Ali, S. M., & Lindström, M. (2005). Socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural, and psychological determinants of BMI among young women: differing patterns for underweight and overweight/ obesity. European Journal of Public Health, 16, 325–331. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki187.

Artemniak-Wojtowicz, D., Kucharska, A. M., & Pyrżak, B. (2020). Obesity and chronic inflammation crosslinking. Central European Journal of Immunology, 45, 461–468. https://doi.org/10.5114/ ceji.2020.103418.

Brończyk-Puzoń, A., Nowak, J., Dittfeld, A., & Bieniek, J. (2014). Epidemiologia otyłości na świecie i w Polsce [Epidemiology of obesity in the world and in Poland]. Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych, 5, 1–5.

Budzyński, A., Major, P., Głuszek, S., Kaseja, K., Koszutski, T., Leśniak, S., Lewandowski, T., Lipka, M., Lisik, W., Makarewicz, W., Michalik, M., Myśliwiec, P., Ostrowska, L., Orłowski, M., Paluszkiewicz, R., Pastuszka, M., Paśnik, K., Pędziwiatr, M., Proczko-Stepaniak, M., … Wyleżoł, M. (2017). Polish recommendations in the field of bariatric and metabolic surgery. Medycyna Praktyczna dla Lekarzy. Retrieved from https://www.mp.pl/ chirurgia/wytyczne-przegladowe/154894,polskierekomendacje-w-zakresie-chirurgii-bariatryczneji-metabolicznej.

Chang, B. P. I., Classeen, M. A., & Klein, O. (2020). The time is ripe: Thinking about the future reduces unhealthy eating in those with a higher BMI. Foods, 9, E1391. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101391.

Donofry, S. D., Stillman, C. M., & Erickson, K. I. (2019). A review of the relationship between eating behavior, obesity and functional brain network organization. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 15, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsz085.

Ellulu, M. S., Patimah, I., Khaza’ai, H., Rahmat, A., & Abed, Y. (2017). Obesity and inflammation: The linking mechanism and the complications. Archives of Medical Sciences, 13, 851–863. https://doi. org/10.5114/aoms.2016.58928.

Griva, F., Tseferidi, S. I., & Anagnostopoulos, F. (2014). Time to get healthy: Associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 20, 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2014.913798.

Guthrie, L. C., Butler, S. C., & Ward, M. M. (2009). Time perspective and socioeconomic status: a link to socioeconomic disparities in health? Social Science & Medicine, 68, 2145–2151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. socscimed.2009.04.004.

Hruby, A., Manson, J. E., Qi L., Malik, V. S., Rimm, E. B., Sun, Q., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2016). Determinants and consequences of obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 106, 1656–1665. https:// doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303326.

Inglis, V., Ball, K., & Crawford, D. (2005). Why do women of low socioeconomic status have poorer dietary behaviours than women of higher socioeconomic status? A qualitative exploration. Appetite, 45, 334– 343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2005.05.003.

Kelsey, K. S., DeVellis, B. M., Gizlice, Z., Ries, A., Barnes, K., & Campbell, M. K. (2011). Obesity, hope, and health: Findings from the HOPE Works Community Survey. Journal of Community Health, 36, 919–924. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-011-9390-6.

Łaguna, M., Trzebiński, J., & Zięba, M. (2005). Kwestionariusz Nadziei na Sukces. Podręcznik [The Hope for Success Questionnaire. Manual]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Major, P., Stefura, T., Dziurowicz, B., Radwan, J., Wysocki, M., Małczak, P., & Pędziwiatr, M. (2020). Quality of life 10 years after bariatric surgery. Obesity Surgery, 30, 3675–3684. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11695-020-04726-7.

Mellibruda, J. (1997). Psycho-bio-społeczna koncepcja uzależnienia od alkoholu [Psycho-bio-social concept of alcohol addiction]. Alkoholizm i Narkomania, 3, 277–306.

Northwehr, F., Clark, D. O., & Perkins, A. (2013). Hope and the use of behavioural strategies related to diet and physical activity. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 26, 159–163. https://doi. org/10.1111/jhn.12057.

Pekař, M., Pekařova, A., Bužga, M., Holéczy, P., & Soltes, M. (2020). The risk of sarcopenia 24 months after bariatric surgery – assessment by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA): a prospective study. Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques, 15, 583–587. https://doi.org/10.5114/wiitm. 2020.93463.

Rebello, C. J., Kirwan, J. P., & Greenway, F. L. (2020). Obesity, the most common comorbidity in SARSCoV-2: Is leptin the link? International Journal of Obesity, 44, 1810–1817. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41366-020-0640-5.

Sarwer, D. B., & Polonsky, H. M. (2016). The psychosocial burden of obesity. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 45, 677–688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2016.04.016.

Scioli, A., Scioli-Salter, E. R., Sykes, K., Anderson C., & Fedele, M. (2016). The positive contributions of hope to maintaining and restoring health: an integrative, mixed method approach. Journal of Positive Psychology, 11, 135–148. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/17439760.2015.1037858.

Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope. Free Press. Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1991). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321–335. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70. 2.321.

Sobol-Kwapińska, M., Przepiórka, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2016). The structure of time perspective: Age-related differences in Poland. Time & Society, 28, 5–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961463X16656851.

Spence, C. (2018). Gastrofizyka. Nowa wiedza o jedzeniu [Gastrophysics. New knowledge about food]. Wydawnictwo Świat Książki. Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 742–752. https://doi. org/10.1037/0022-3514.66.4.742.

Szeliga, J., Wyleżoł, M., Major, P., Budzyński, A., Binda, A., Proczko-Stepaniak, M., Boniecka, I., Matłok, M., Sekuła, M., Kaska, Ł., Myśliwiec, P., Szewczyk, T., Możański, M., Kowalski, G., Pesta, W., Lisik, W., Michalik, M., Lewandowski, T., & Paśnik, K. (2020). Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Chapter of the Association of Polish Surgeons. Bariatric and metabolic surgery care standards. Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques, 15, 391–394. https://doi.org/10.5114/wiitm.2020.97935.

Tarnowski, W., & Jaworski, P. (2018). Operacje bariatryczne w praktyce [Bariatric operations in clinical practice]. Gastroenterologia Kliniczna, 10, 93–101.

Van Beek, J., Antonides, G., & Handgraaf, M. J. (2013). Eat now, exercise later: The relation between consideration of immediate and future consequences and healthy behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 785–791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. paid.2012.12.015.

Zaleski, Z. (1996). Future anxiety: Concept, measurement, and preliminary research. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 165–174. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/0191-8869(96)00070-0.

Zaleski, Z. (2018). Psychologia lęku przed przyszłością [Psychology of future anxiety]. Difin.

Zaleski, Z., Sobol-Kwapinska, M., Przepiorka, A., & Meisner, M. (2019). Development and validation of the Dark Future Scale. Time & Society, 28, 107– 123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961463X16678257.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: a valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022- 3514.77.6.1271.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2009). The time paradox. Simon & Schuster.

Zimbardo, P. G., Sword, R., & Sword, R. (2012). Time cure: Overcoming PTSD with the new psychology of time perspective therapy. Jossey-Bass.



Jak cytować

Tucholska, K., Gulla, B., Grabowska, A., & Major, P. (2022). Time perspective, future anxiety, and hope for success in individuals awaiting bariatric surgery. Health Psychology Report, 10(2), 111–121. Pobrano z https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/HPR/article/view/6887