When out-groups are perceived as out of place: urban disorder sensitivity and environmental distance


  • Michał Jaśkiewicz Uniwersytet Gdański
  • Jurand Sobiecki Uniwersytet Gdański

Słowa kluczowe:

environmental distance, urban disorder sensitivity, intergroup relations, out-group visual encroachment



These studies aimed to determine whether a stronger preference for order, structure, and predictability in the urban environment (measured by the Space Intrusion subscale of the Urban Socio-Spatial Disorder Sensitivity Scale) and a  higher score on the Out-Group Visual Encroachment scale are associated with more aversive reactions towards the idea of people of another race, ethnicity, or religion settling in the neighborhood.

Participants and procedure

Participants were recruited through online snowball sampling (pilot study) as well as from among university students. Students were also asked to send links to the study to their acquaintances. The pilot study, as well as Study 1B, were conducted online, whereas in Study 1A the paper-pencil method was used.


Scores on the Space Intrusion subscale and the Out-group Visual Encroachment scale were associated with outgroup negativity. Out-group Visual Encroachment was found to mediate the relationship between Space Intrusion and environmental distance toward Muslims.


Perceiving out-groups as out of place is a  joint product of environmental features (visual cues of belonging) and characteristics of the individual (sensitivity to urban disorder). The challenge for neighborhoods in times of increased migration is how to shape the public domain to increase the chances of strangers becoming more familiar.


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Jaśkiewicz, M., & Sobiecki, J. (2022). When out-groups are perceived as out of place: urban disorder sensitivity and environmental distance. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 10(2), 123–134. Pobrano z https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/CIiPP/article/view/6968