Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Self-Pluralism Scale (SPS)


Słowa kluczowe:

self-pluralism scale, self-concept, confirmatory factor analysis



The Self-Pluralism Scale (SPS) measures the declared degree of self-pluralism, visible already in William James’s works. Self-pluralism refers to the degree to which one perceives oneself as typically feeling, behaving, and being different, in different situations, and at different times. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the SPS.

Participants and procedurę

A total of 1747 participants (67% were women) between the ages of 15 and 70 years completed the SPS along with measures of self-concept inconsistency, self-concept differentiation, dissociative experiences, internal dialogical activity, personality, and social desirability.


Internal reliability and test-retest reliability were high. The full version has too low indices of fit whereas the brief, 10-item version fits the data well. As indicators of the convergent validity, a positive correlation of SPS with self-concept inconsistency, self-concept differentiation, dissociative experiences, internal dialogical activity and neuroticism and a negative correlation with agreeableness and social desirability were found.


The results suggest that the brief, 10-item version is more valid than the full, 30-item version. The tool may be used for scientific research concerning self-pluralism. After collecting data from a sample that would allow norms to be constructed, the tool may also be useful for individual diagnosis.


Download data is not yet available.


Altrocchi, J. (1999). Individual differences in pluralism in self-structure. In J. Rowan & M. Cooper (Eds.), The plural self. Multiplicity in everyday life (pp. 168–182). Sage.

Awang, Z. (2012). Structural equation modeling using Amos graphic. UiTM Press. Bauman, Z. (1998). Globalization: The human consequences. Columbia University Press.

Bleidorn, W., & Ködding, C. (2013). The divided self and psychological (mal) adjustment – a meta-analytic review. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 547–552.

Boucher, H. C., & O’Dowd, M. C. (2011). Language and the bicultural dialectical self. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17, 211–216.

Campbell, J. D., Trapnell, P. D., Heine, S. J., Katz, I. M., Lavallee, L. F., & Lehman, D. R. (1996). Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 141–156.

Cantor, N., & Kihlstrom, J. F. (1987). Personality and social intelligence. Prentice Hall.

Carlson, E., & Putnam, F. (1993). An update on the dissociative experiences scale. Dissociation, 6, 16–27. Churchyard, J. S., Pine, K. J., Sharma, S., & Fletcher, B. (C). (2014). Same traits, different variance: Item-level variation within personality measures. Sage Open, 4, 215824401452263. 10.1177/2158244014522634.

Cohen, J. R., Spiegler, K. M., Young, J. F., Hankin, B. L., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2014). Self-structures, negative events, and adolescent depression. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34, 736–759.

Cooper, M., & Cruthers, H. (1999). Facilitating the expression of subpersonalities: a review and analysis of techniques. In J. Rowan & M. Cooper (Eds.), The plural self. Multiplicity in everyday life (pp. 198–212). Sage.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Professional manual: Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Psychological Assessment Center.

Crowne, D., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354.

Donahue, E. M., Robins, R. W., Roberts, B. W., & John, O. P. (1993). The divided self: Concurrent and longitudinal effects of psychological adjustment and social roles on self-concept differentiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 834–846.

Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527.

Flury, J., & Ickes, W. (2007). Having a weak versus strong sense of self: The Sense of Self Scale (SOSS). Self and Identity, 6, 281–303.

Freud, S. (1923/2010). The Ego and the Id. Martino Fine Books.

Glick, P., Lameiras Fernández, M., Fiske, S., Eckes, T., Masser, B., Volpato, Ch., Manganelli, A., Pek, J., Huang, L. L., Sakallı, N., Castro, Y., Pereira, M., Willemsen, T., Brunner, A., Six-Materna, I., & Wells, R. (2004). Bad but bold: Ambivalent attitudes toward men predict gender inequality in 16 nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 713– 728.

Gołąb, A. (1999). Przeżycia dysocjacyjne w życiu osób, które trafiły do więzienia [Dissociative experiences in the lives of people who ended up in prison]. Nowiny Psychologiczne, 4, 29–40.

Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: a theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319– 340.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (Revised and expanded 3rd edition).

McGraw-Hill. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. 10.1080/10705519909540118.

James, W. (1890/2018). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). Retrieved from

Jung, C. G. (1934/1954). Archetypes of the collective unconscious. In Collected works (Vol. 9.1). Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Linville, P. W. (1985). Self-complexity and affective extremity: Don’t put all eggs in one cognitive basket. Social Cognition, 3, 94–120.

Linville, P. W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 663–676.

Locke, K. D. (2006). What predicts well-being: a consistent self-concept or a desirable self-concept? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 228–247.

Magee, C., Buchtel, E. E., Human, L. J., Murray, D. R., & Biesanz, J. C. (2018). Is personality variability associated with adjustment? Journal of Research in Personality, 72, 22–43. jrp.2016.08.005.

Mair, J. M. M. (1977). The community of self. In D. Bannister (Ed.), New perspectives in personal construct theory (pp. 125–149). Academic Press.

Markus, H. R. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63–78. 10.1037/0022-3514.35.2.63.

Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969. https://doi. org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.9.954.

Martindale, C. (1980). Subselves: The internal representation of situational and personal dispositions. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Annual review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 193–218). Sage.

McConnell, A. R. (2011). The multiple self-aspects framework: Self-concept representation and its implications. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 3–27.

McReynolds, P., Altrocchi, J., & House, C. (2000). Selfpluralism: Assessment and relations to adjustment, life changes, and age. Journal of Personality, 68, 347–381.

Ogilvie, D. M. (1987). The undesired self: a neglected variable in personality research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 379–385. https://

Oleś, P. K. (2009). Czy głosy umysłu da się mierzyć? Skala Wewnętrznej Aktywności Dialogowej (SWAD) [Can the mind’s voices be measured? The Internal Dialogical Activity Scale (IDAS)]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 52, 37–50.

Oleś, P. K., & Puchalska-Wasyl, M. (2011). Dialogicality and personality traits. In H. J. M. Hermans & T. Gieser (Eds.), Handbook of dialogical self theory (pp. 241–252). Cambridge University Press.

Oyserman, D. (2004). Self-concept and identity. In M. B. Brewer & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Self and social identity (pp. 5–24). Blackwell.

Read, S. J., Smith, B. J., Droutman, V., & Miller, L. C. (2017). Virtual personalities: Using computational modeling to understand within-person variability. Journal of Research in Personality, 69, 237–249.

Rosenberg, S. (1997). Multiplicity of selves. In R. D. Ashmore & L. J. Jussim (Eds.), Rutgers series on self and social identity, Vol. 1. Self and identity: Fundamental issues (pp. 23–45). Oxford University Press.

Ross, C. A. (1999). Subpersonalities and multiple personalities: a dissociative continuum? In J. Rowan & M. Cooper (Eds.), The plural self. Multiplicity in everyday life (pp. 183–197). Sage.

Ross, C. A., Ellason, J. W., & Anderson, G. (1995). A factor analysis of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in dissociative identity disorder. Dissociation, 8, 229–235.

Schmitt, D. P., Allik, J., McCrae, R. R., & BenetMartínez, V. (2007). The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits. Journal of CrossCultural Psychology, 38, 173–212. 10.1177/0022022106297299.

Schwartz, R. (1999). The internal family systems model. In J. Rowan & M. Cooper (Eds.), The plural self. Multiplicity in everyday life (pp. 238–253). Sage.

Scott, W. A. (1966). Brief report: Measures of cognitive structure. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 37– 41.

Siuta, J. (1989). Zmienna aprobaty społecznej w badaniach nad zjawiskami hipnotycznymi [A variable of social approval in research on hypnotic phenomena]. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 5, 131–141.

Stone, H., & Stone, S. (1993), Embracing our selves: The voice dialogue manual. Nataraj Publishing.

Styła, R., Jankowski, K., & Suszek, H. (2010). Skala niespójności Ja (SN-Ja) [Self-Concept Inconsistency Scale]. Studia Psychologiczne, 48, 31–43.

Suszek, H. (2005). Wielość Ja w społeczeństwie postmodernistycznym [Self-pluralism in postmodern society]. Psychologia. Edukacja i Społeczeństwo, 2, 57–70.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Brooks-Cole.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96, 506–520.

Wilson, R. E., Thompson, R. J., & Vazire, S. (2017). Are fluctuations in personality states more than fluctuations in affect? Journal of Research in Personality, 69, 110–123. 06.006.

Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Śliwińska, M. (1998). Inwentarz osobowości NEO-FFI Costy i McCrae. Polska adaptacja [The NEO-FFI inventory by Costa and McCrae. Polish adaptation]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

Zawisza, M., Luyt, R., & Zawadzka, A. M. (2012). Ambivalence toward men: Comparing sexism among Polish, South African and British university students. Sex Roles, 66, 453–467. 10.1007/s11199-011-0112-4.



Jak cytować

Łyś, A. E., Suszek, H., & Fronczyk, K. (2022). Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Self-Pluralism Scale (SPS). Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 10(2), 153–163. Pobrano z