Developing a Peer Relationship Scale for Adolescents: a validity and reliability study


  • Fatih Aydoğdu Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University

Słowa kluczowe:

peer relations, scale development, child, adolescent



This study aims to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure adolescents’ peer relationships.

Participants and procedure

The research was carried out with 543 adolescents aged 11-18 studying in secondary schools and high schools. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to determine the construct validity of the scale. Based on the results of the exploratory factor analysis, a structure consisting of four sub-dimensions and 29 items was obtained. The sub-dimensions of the scale are named as intimacy, popularity, trust, and insightfulness.


As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, the model fit indices were found to have a good fit. Significant relationships were found with the Peer Support Scale and the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale during the analysis of the scale’s criterion validity. Cronbach’s α internal consistency, split half reliability, and the test-retest method were used to assess the reliability of the scale. Cronbach’s α internal consistency coefficient for the total score was found to be .93, the split-half reliability was .85, and the test-retest reliability value was .82.


It can be inferred that the scale, which was developed based on the results obtained from validity and reliability studies, is a measurement tool that can be used in studies involving adolescents studying at the level of secondary and high school.


Download data is not yet available.


Akın, A., Yılmaz, S., Özen, Y., Raba, S., & Özhan, Y. (2016). Stirling Çocuklar İçin Duygusal ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği’ nin Türkçe formu’ nun geçerlik ve güvenirliği [The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale]. Paper presented at V Educational Research Congress in Sakarya. Retrieved from

Akoglu, H. (2018). User’s guide to correlation coefficients. Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18, 91–93. https:/

Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427–454. BF02202939.

Asher, S. R., MacEvoy, J. P., & McDonald, K. L. (2008). Children’s peer relations, social competence and school adjustment: a social tasks and social goals perspective. In M. L. Maehr, S. Karabenick, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 15, pp. 357–390). Emerald Press.

Bauminger, N., Finzi-Dottan, R., Chason, S., & HarEven, D. (2008). Intimacy in adolescent friendship: The roles of attachment, coherence, and self-disclosure. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 25, 409–428.

Berk L. (2013). Development through the lifespan (6th ed.). Pearson Higher Education.

Boivin, M. (2005). The origin of peer relationship difficulties in early childhood and their impact on children’s psychosocial adjustment and development. In R. E. Tremblay, R. G. Barr, & R. Peters (Eds.), Encyclopedia on early childhood development (pp. 1–7). Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development.

Brown, B. B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescents. In R. M. L. Steinberg (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. Contextual influences on adolescent development (Vol. 2, pp. 74–103). John Wiley & Sons.

Bukowski, W. M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre-and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 471–484.

Burt, S. A., & Donnellan, M. B. (2015). Toward a developmentally sensitive and genetically informed perspective on popularity. In B. N. Horwitz & J. M. Neiderhiser (Eds.), Gene-environment interplay in interpersonal relationships across the lifespan (pp. 151–169). Springer.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı [Manual of data analysis for social sciences]. Pegem Akademik Yayıncılık. Cabrera, N. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., Bradley, R. H., & Roggman, L. (2014). The ecology of father‐child relationships: an expanded model. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 6, 336–354. jftr.12054.

Chin, J. C. (2014). Young children’s trust beliefs in peers: Relations to social competence and interactive behaviors in a peer group. Early Education and Development, 25, 601–618.

Collins, N. L., & Feeney, B. C. (2004). An attachment theory perspective on closeness and intimacy. In D. J. Mashek & A. P. Aron (Eds.), Handbook of closeness and intimacy (pp. 163–187). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Dewalt, D. A., Thissen, D., Stucky, B. D., Langer, M. M., Morgan Dewitt, E., Irwin, D. E., Lai, J. S., Yeatts, K. B., Gross, H. E., Taylor, O., & Varni, J. W. (2013). PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale: Development of a peer relationships item bank as part of social health measurement. Health Psychology, 32, 1093–1103.

Dykas, M. J., Ziv, Y., & Cassidy, J. (2008). Attachment and peer relations in adolescence. Attachment & Human Development, 10, 123–141. 10.1080/14616730802113679.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistic using SPSS for Windows. Sage Publications. Finger, L., Yeung, A. S., Craven, R., Parada, R., & Newey, K. (2008). Adolescent peer relations instrument: assessment of its reliability and construct validity when used with upper primary students. Paper presented at Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference, Brisbane. Retrieved from www.

Foubister, L. (2017). The role of secure peer groups in social and emotional outcomes for adolescents in an academically selective high school setting. Journal of Student Engagement: Education Matters, 7, 28–48.

Gifford-Smith, M. E., & Brownell, C. A. (2003). Childhood peer relationships: Social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 235–284. S0022-4405(03)00048-7.

Hudson, W. (1990). A short-form scale to measure peer relations dysfunction. Journal of Social Service Research, 13, 57–69. J079v13n04_04.

Hulsey, C. (2008). Examining the psychometric properties of self-report measures of bullying: Reliability of the peer relations questionnaire (Doctoral dissertation). Wichita State University.

Immele, A. (2000). The role of adolescents’ representations of attachment and peer relationships in the prediction of delinquency (Unpublished master thesis). University of Virginia.

Kaner, S. (2000). Akran Ilişkileri Ölçeği ve Akran Sapması Ölçeği geliştirme çalışması [Peer Relationship Scale and Peer Deviation Scale development study]. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 33, 67–75.

Karakuş, Ö. (2012). Ergenlerde bağlanma stilleri ve yalnızlık arasındaki ilişki [Relation between attachment styles and loneliness in adolescence]. Journal of Society & Social Work, 23, 33–46.

Kerwin, M. L. E., & Day, J. D. (1985). Peer influences on cognitive development. In J. B. Pryor & J. D. Day (Eds.), The development of social cognition (pp. 211– 228). Springer.

Klarin, M. (2000). Odnosi u obitelji i s vršnjacima kao prediktori različitih aspekata prilagodbe u školi [Family and peer relations as predictors of various aspects of school adjustment (Doctoral dissertation)]. University of Zagreb.

Koren-Karie, N. & Oppenheim, D. (2018) Parental insightfulness: Retrospect and prospect. Attachment & Human Development, 20, 223–236. https:/ 10.1080/14616734.2018.1446741.

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174.

Liddle, I., & Carter, G. F. A. (2015). Emotional and psychological well-being in children: The development and validation of the Stirling Children’s Well-Being Scale. Educational Psychology in Practice, 31, 174– 185.

Lubbers, M. J., Van Der Werf, M. P., Snijders, T. A., Creemers, B. P., & Kuyper, H. (2006). The impact of peer relations on academic progress in junior high. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 491–512. https:/

Mims, C. (2017, February 20). For Generation Z, ‘live chilling’ replaces hanging out in person. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from articles/for-generation-z-live-chilling-replaceshanging-out-in-person-1487519134.

Nesi, J., Choukas-Bradley, S., & Prinstein, M. J. (2018). Transformation of adolescent peer relations in the social media context: Part 1 – a theoretical framework and application to dyadic peer relationships. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 21, 267–294. https:/

Oppenheim, D., & Koren-Karie, N. (2013). The insightfulness assessment: Measuring the internal processes underlying maternal sensitivity. Attachment & Human Development, 15, 545–561. https://

Pallant, J. (2001). SPSS survival manual. Open University Press.

Parada, R. H. (2000). Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument: a theoretical and empirical basis for the measurement of participant roles in bullying and victimization of adolescence: a test manual. University of Western Sydney.

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621.

Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Erath, S. A., Wojslawowicz, J. C., & Buskirk, A. A. (2006). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: a developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Theory and method (pp. 419–493). John Wiley & Sons.

Perren, S., Malti, T., & McDonald, K. L. (2011). International research on peer relations in the 21st century: What’s new? In A. Ittel, H. Merkens, & L. Stecher (Eds.), Jahrbuch Jugendforschung [Yearbook youth research] (pp. 290–315). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Pierce, G. R., Sarason, I. G., & Sarason, B. R. (1991). General and relationship-based perceptions of social support: Are two constructs better than one? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 1028–1039. 61.6.1028.

Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Sellers, C. S., Winfree, L. T. Jr., Madensen, T. D., Daigle, L. E., Fearn, N. E., & Gau, J. M. (2010). The empirical status of social learning theory: a meta-analysis. Justice Quarterly, 27, 765–802.

Raboteg-Saric, Z., & Sakic, M. (2014). Relations of parenting styles and friendship quality to self-esteem, life satisfaction and happiness in adolescents. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 9, 749–765. https:/

Reitz, A. K., Zimmermann, J., Hutteman, R., Specht, J., & Neyer, F. J. (2014). How peers make a difference: The role of peer groups and peer relationships in personality development. European Journal of Personality, 28, 279–288.

Rigby, K., & Slee, P. T. (1993). Dimensions of interpersonal relating among Australian school children and their implications for psychological wellbeing. Journal of Social Psychology, 133, 33–42.

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation in measure of personality and social psychological attitudes. California Academic Press.

Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Bowker, J. C. (2015a). Children in peer groups. In M. H. Bornstein, T. Leventhal, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Ecological settings and processes (pp. 175–222). John Wiley & Sons.

Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. Chen, X., Bowker, J. C., McDonald, K., & Heverly-Fitt, S. (2015b). Peer relationships in childhood. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: an advanced textbook (7th ed., pp. 591–649). Psychology Press.

Saltalı, N. D., & İmir, H. M. (2018). Parenting styles as a predictor of the preschool children’s social behaviours. Participatory Educational Research, 5, 18–37.

Schriesheim, C. A., & Eisenbach, R. J. (1995). An exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic investigation of item wording effects on obtained factor structures of survey questionnaire measures. Journal of Management, 6, 1177–1193. https://doi. org/10.1177/014920639502100609.

Schumacher, R., & Lomax, R. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modelling. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Seçer, İ. (2013). SPSS ve LISREL ile pratik veri analizi: Analiz ve raporlaştırma [Practical data analysis with SPSS and LISREL: Analysis and reporting]. Anı Yayıncılık.

Seçer, İ. (2015). Zorbalıkla başa çıkma stratejileri ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Developing coping strategies with bullying scale: The study of reliability and validity]. Atatürk Üniversitesi Kazım Karabekir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30, 85–105.

Smetana, J. G. (2010). The role of trust in adolescentparent relationships: To trust you is to tell you. In Rotenberg, K. J. (Ed.), Interpersonal trust during childhood and adolescence (pp. 223–246). Cambridge University Press.

Szewczyk-Sokolowski, M., Bost, K. K., & Wainwright, A. B. (2005). Attachment, temperament, and preschool children’s peer acceptance. Social Development, 14, 379–397. j.1467-9507.2005.00307.x.

Şahan, B., & Duy, B. (2017). Okul tükenmişliği: Özyeterlik, okula bağlanma ve sosyal desteğin yordayıcı rolü [School burnout: Predictive role of self-efficacy, school attachment and social support]. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 13, 1249–1270. mersinefd.297590.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Pearson.

Tamer, İ., & Dereli, B. (2014). The relationship between interpersonal trust, peer support and organizational commitment. Öneri Dergisi, 11, 175–196. https:/ÖNERİ.2014427002.

Tavşancıl, E. (2019). Tutumların ölçülmesiyle SPSS ile veri analizi [Data analysis with SPSS by measuring attitudes]. Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Taylor, R. D., & Gebre, A. (2016). Teacher-student relationships and personalized learning: Implications of person and contextual variables. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, & J. Twyman (Eds.), Handbook on personalized learning for states, districts, and schools (pp. 205–220). Center on Innovations in Learning, Temple University.

Twenge, J. M., Martin, G. N., & Spitzberg, B. H. (2019). Trends in U.S. adolescents’ media use, 1976-2016: The rise of digital media, the decline of TV, and the (near) demise of print. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8, 329–345. https:/ ppm0000203.

Vannatta, K., Gartstein, M. A., Zeller, M., & Noll, R. B. (2009). Peer acceptance and social behavior during childhood and adolescence: How important are appearance, athleticism, and academic competence? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33, 303–311.

Yao, P., Ciesla, J. R., Mazurek, K. D., & Spear, S. F. (2012). Peer relations scale for adolescents treated for substance use disorder: a factor analytic presentation. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 7, 1–6.

Yıldırım, İ. (2004). Algılanan sosyal destek ölçeğinin revizyonu [Revision of the scale of perceived social support]. Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 17, 221–236.

Yiğit, M. F., Keskin, S., & Yurdugül, H. (2018). Ortaokullarda siber zorbalık ve aile desteği arasındaki ilişkinin cinsiyet, internet kullanımı ve öğrenim düzeyi bağlamında incelenmesi [Examining the relationship between cyberbullying and family support in secondary schools in terms of gender, internet use and education level]. The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5, 249–284. addicta.2018.5.2.0050.



Jak cytować

Aydoğdu, F. (2022). Developing a Peer Relationship Scale for Adolescents: a validity and reliability study. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 10(2), 164–176. Pobrano z