Teachers of socially maladjusted children and youth. Occupational burnout – sense of self-efficacy – teachers’ life optimism. A comparative study


Słowa kluczowe:

school, aggression, emotion, coping, stress, engagement


The psychological specificity of the occupation of teachers in youth fostering centres (Młodzieżowe Ośrodki Wychowawcze, MOW) and youth psychotherapy centres (Młodzieżowe Ośrodki Psychoterapii, MOS) is rarely explored in empirical studies. As indicated in the literature, working in resocialization facilities (such as MOWs or MOSs) requires more effort expended in contacts with students. Study results indicate that teachers at greater risk of experiencing aggression are also at a greater risk of occupational burnout.
Participants and procedure
The aim of the current study was to gather data on the intensity of occupational burnout among MOW/MOS teachers and public school teachers as well as to analyse the correlates and predictors of burnout. One hundred and sixty-nine people from two voivodeships in Poland took part in the study. The following measures were used in the study: the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and the Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ).
Psychophysical exhaustion and a sense of a lack of self-efficacy among teachers are related to their workplace conditions. Longer job experience had a significant influence on the intensity of the individual aspects of occupational burnout and sense of self-efficacy. The current study did not reveal a significant influence of life optimism.
The current study requires continuation, as detailed scientific analyses of this occupational group are still lacking. There is a need for further studies on the impact of occupational burnout on the effectiveness of teachers’ pedagogical interventions.


Download data is not yet available.


Adeniyi, S. O., Fakolade, O. A., & Adeyinka, T. (2010). Perceived causes of job stress among special educators in selected special and integrated schools in Nigeria. New Horizons in Education, 58, 73–82.

Barkhuizen, N., Rothmann, S., & Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2014). Burnout and work engagement of academics in higher education institutions: Effects of dispositional optimism. Stress Health, 30, 322–332. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2520.

Boles, J. S., Dean, D. H., Ricks, J. M., Short, J. C., & Wang, G. (2000). The dimensionality of the Maslach Burnout Inventory across small business owners and educators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 12–34. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1999.1689.

Brunsting, N., Sreckovic, M., & Lane, K. (2014). Special education teacher burnout: a synthesis of research from 1979 to 2013. Education and Treatment of Children, 37, 681–712. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2014.0032.

Buonomo, I., Fatigante M., & Fiorilli, C. (2017). Teachers’ burnout profile: Risk and protective factors. The Open Psychology Journal, 10, 190–201. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874350101710010190.

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: a study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 473–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.09.001.

Caputo, A., & Langher, V. (2015). Validation of the Collaboration and Support for Inclusive Teaching (CSIT) scale in special education teachers. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 210–222. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282914548335.

Chang, E. C., Rand, K. L., & Strunk, D. L. (2000). Optimism and risk for job burnout among working college students: Stress as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 255–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00191-9.

De Stasio, S., Fiorilli, C., Benevene, P., Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., & Di Chiacchio, C. (2017). Burnout in special needs teachers at kindergarten and primary school: Investigating the role of personal resources and work wellbeing. Psychology in the Schools, 54, 472–486. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits22013.

Fejgin, N., Talmor, R., & Erlich, I. (2005). Inclusion and burnout in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 11, 29–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X05049823.

Foley, C., & Murphy, M. (2015). Burnout in Irish teachers: Investigating the role of individual differences, work environment and coping factors. Teaching and Teacher Education, 50, 1–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.05.001.

Fore, C., Martin, C., & Bender, W. N. (2002). Teacher burnout in special education: The causes and the recommended solutions. The High School Journal, 86, 36–44. https://doi.org/10.1353/hsj.2002.0017.

Galand, B., Lecocq, C., & Philippot, P. (2007). School violence and teacher professional disengagement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 465– 477. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709906X114571.

Gottschalk, L. A. (1974). A Hope scale applicable to verbal samples. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 779–785. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1974.01760120041007.

Granosik, M., Gulczyńska, A., & Szczepanik, R. (2014). Klimat społeczny instytucji wychowawczych i jego uwarunkowania. Perspektywa pracowników i wychowanków młodzieżowych ośrodków wychowawczych (MOW) i socjoterapii (MOS) [Social climate of educational institutions and its determinants. Perspective of employees and charges of youth educational centers (MOW) and sociotherapy (MOS)]. In J. E. Kowalska (Ed.), Zapobieganie wykluczeniu z systemu edukacji dzieci i młodzieży nieprzystosowanej społecznie. Perspektywa pedagogiczna [Preventing exclusion of socially maladjusted children and youth from the education system. Pedagogical perspective] (pp. 13–71). Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.

Grzegorzewska, M. (1960). Dążenie do odnowy dróg resocjalizacji młodzieży niedostosowanej społecznie [Striving to renew the paths of social rehabilitation of socially maladjusted youth]. Szkoła Specjalna, 6. Hayes, C., & Weathington, B. (2007). Optimism, stress, life satisfaction, and job burnout in restaurant managers. The Journal of Psychology, 141, 565–579. https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.141.6.565-580.

Jaworowska, A. (2014). Kwestionariusz Wypalenia Zawodowego LBQ [Link Burnout Questionnaire]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

Juczyński, Z. (2012). Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia [Measurement tools in health promotion and psychology]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

Karłyk-Ćwik, A. (2012). Wypalenie zawodowe pedagogów resocjalizacyjnych a samoocena ich kompetencji zawodowych [Professional burnout of rehabilitation educators and the self-assessment of their professional competences]. In M. Sekułowicz & M. Oleniacz (Eds.), Niesamodzielność: studia z pedagogiki specjalnej [Independence: studies in special education] (pp. 91–111). Wydawnictwo Naukowe Dolnośląskiej Szkoły Wyższej.

Kim, L. E., & Burić, I. (2020). Teacher self-efficacy and burnout: Determining the directions of prediction through an autoregressive cross-lagged panel model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112, 1661–1676. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000424.

Krok, D., & Telka, E. (2019). Optimism mediates the relationships between meaning in life and subjective and psychological well-being among late adolescents. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 7, 32–42. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2018.79960.

Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher sex, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741–756. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019237.

Lee, Y., & Witruk, E. (2016). Teachers’ intended classroom management strategies for students with ADHD: a cross-cultural study between South Korea and Germany. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 4, 106–117. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2016.60171.

Litzke, S. M. (2007). Stres, mobbing i wypalenie zawodowe [Stress, mobbing and job burnout]. GWP.

Love, A., Findley, J., Ruble, L., & McGrew, J. (2020). Teacher self-efficacy for teaching students with autism spectrum disorder: Associations with stress, teacher engagement, and student IEP outcomes following COMPASS consultation. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 35, 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357619836767.

Malagón-Aguilera, M. A., Suñer-Soler, R., BonmatíTomas, A., Bosch-Farré, C., Gelabert-Viella, S., Fontova-Almató, A., Grau-Martín, A., & JuvinyàCanal, D. (2020). Dispositional optimism, burnout and their relationship with self-reported health status among nurses working in long-term healthcare centers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 4918. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144918.

Mamlin, N. (2012). Preparing effective special education teachers. Guilford Press.

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. Jossey-Bass.

McLean, D., Eklund, K., Kilgus, S. P., & Burns, M. K. (2019). Influence of teacher burnout and self-efficacy on teacher-related variance in social-emotional and behavioral screening scores. School Psychology, 34, 503–511. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000304.

Miller, M. D., Brownell, M. T., & Smith, S. W. (1999). Factors that predict teachers staying in, leaving, or transferring from the special education classroom. Exceptional Children, 65, 201–218. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440299906500206.

Minarik, M., Thornton, B., & Perreault, G. (2003). Systems thinking can improve teacher retention. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 76, 230–234. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098650309602010.

Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej (2015). Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej z dnia 2 listopada 2015 r. w sprawie rodzajów i szczegółowych zasad działania placówek publicznych, warunków pobytu dzieci i młodzieży w tych placówkach oraz wysokości i zasad odpłatności wnoszonej przez rodziców za pobyt ich dzieci w tych placówkach [Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 2 November 2015 on the types and detailed rules of operation of public institutions, the conditions of stay of children and adolescents in these institutions, as well as the amount and rules of payment made by parents for the stay of their children in these institutions]. Dziennik Ustaw.

Mojsa-Kaja, J., Golonka, K., & Marek, T. (2015). Job burnout and engagement among teachers – worklife areas and personality traits as predictors of relationships with work. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 28, 102–119. https://doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00238.

Opeyemi, S. M. I. (2016). Hardiness, sensation seeking, optimism and social support as predictors of stress tolerance among private secondary schools teachers in Lagos state. Clinical Depression, 2, 116. https://doi.org/10.4172/2572-0791.1000116.

Park, E. Y., & Shin, M. (2020). A meta-analysis of special education teachers’ burnout. SAGE Open, 10, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020918297.

Pastwa-Wojciechowska, B. (2015). Diagnoza zaburzeń osobowości a perspektywa opiniowania sądowo-psychologicznego [Personality’ disorders diagnose in the judicial-psychological judgment]. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 20, 499–513.

Pearson, M., Clavenna-Deane, B., & Carter, K. (2015). Job attitudes of special educators related to inclusion of students with significant disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 30, 81–93.

Piotrowski, A. (2010). Stres i wypalenie zawodowe funkcjonariuszy Służby Więziennej [Stress and burnout among the officers of the Prison Service]. Difin.

Poormahmood, A., Moayedi, F., & Alizadeh, K. A. (2017). Relationships between psychological wellbeing, happiness and perceived occupational stress among primary school teachers. Archives of Hellenic Medicine, 34, 504–510.

Pytka, L., & Zacharuk, T. (1998). Zaburzenia przystosowania społecznego dzieci i młodzieży. Aspekty diagnostyczne i terapeutyczne [Disorders of social adaptation of children and adolescents. Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects]. Wyższa Szkoła Rolniczo-Pedagogiczna w Siedlcach.

Pyżalski, J. (2002). Wypalenie zawodowe a zdrowie i zachowania zdrowotne pedagogów placówek resocjalizacyjnych [Burnout, health and health behawior in teachers employed in correction institutions]. Medycyna Pracy, 53, 496–497.

Rojas-Flores, L., Herrera, S., Currier, J., Foster, J., Putman, K., Roland, A., & Foy, D. (2015). Exposure to violence, posttraumatic stress, and burnout among teachers in El Salvador: Testing a mediational model. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 4, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1037/ipp0000029.

Santinello, M. (2008). LBQ. Link Burnout Questionnaire. Manuale. Giunti O.S. Santoro, D. A. (2018). Is it burnout? Or demoralization? Educational Leadership, 75, 10–15.

Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009) Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14, 204–220. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430910966406.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.67.6.1063.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: a user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). NFER Nelson.

Sproles, K. Z. (2018). The emotional balancing act of teaching: a burnout recovery plan. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 153, 99–107. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.20285.

Stempien, L. R., & Loeb, R. C. (2002). Differences in job satisfaction between general education and special education teachers: Implications for retention. Remedial and Special Education, 23, 258–267. https://doi.org/10.1177/07419325020230050101.

Szabó, É., & Jagodics, B. (2012). Teacher burnout in the light of workplace, organizational, and social factors. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 9, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1556/063.9.2019.3.44.

Śliwa, S. (2013). Wybrane problemy resocjalizacji nieletnich w młodzieżowych ośrodkach wychowawczych [Selected problems of juvenile rehabilitation in youth educational centers]. Instytut Śląski.

Talmor, R., Reiter, S., & Feigin, N. (2007). Factors relating to regular education teacher burnout in inclusive education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 20, 215–229. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250500055735.

Terrill, D., Friedman-Wheeler, D., Gottschalk, L., & Haaga, D. (2002). Construct validity of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 550– 563. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA7903_09.

Williams, J. (2003). Why great teachers stay. Educational Leadership, 60, 71–74. Wong, V., Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., & Yu, Y. (2017). Study of multidimensional fidelity of COMPAS consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 33, 251–263. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000217.



Jak cytować

Sygit-Kowalkowska, E. (2023). Teachers of socially maladjusted children and youth. Occupational burnout – sense of self-efficacy – teachers’ life optimism. A comparative study. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 11(1), 48–57. Pobrano z https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/CIiPP/article/view/8308