Citizenship activity in emerging adults: the role of self-esteem, social skills, and well-being


Słowa kluczowe:

civic behaviours, personality constructs, self-esteem, skills in social exposure situation, social well-being



The paper considers the broad model of citizenship activity by Zalewska and Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, including the passive (national identity and patriotism), semi-active (loyalty and voting), and active (social, political, change-oriented, and personal activity) forms of citizenship among emerging adults who already have civil rights. The study examines the profile of citizenship activity and psychological factors – personality constructs (self-esteem and social skills in intimate, social exposure, and demanding assertiveness situations) and personal experiences (emotional, social, and psychological well-being) – as correlates and predictors of civic behaviour dimensions.

Participants and procedure:

A set of questionnaires (Multidimensional Self-esteem Inventory, Social Skills Inventory, Mental Health Continuum – Short Form, and Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire-30 – general version) were completed by 140 Polish emerging adults (50% women) aged 19 to 25.


Results of Student’s t-tests showed that emerging adults (like adolescents) manifested the highest level of personal activity, lower level of passive and then semi-active citizenship, even less involvement in socio-political activities, and the lowest in political activity. Particular dimensions of civic behaviours were positively but differently correlated with personality constructs and well-being – only personal activity was associated with all psychological factors. They were also differently predicted by the set of psychological variables (regression analyses), but self-esteem, so-cial exposure skills, and social well-being were particularly important predictors.


These results indicate that policies promoting the citizenship activity of emerging adults need to recognise, support, and strengthen these psychological variables, as they can be modified by deliberate influences and interventions that may be the subject of further research.


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Jak cytować

Zalewska, A. M. (2023). Citizenship activity in emerging adults: the role of self-esteem, social skills, and well-being. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 11(2), 108–120. Pobrano z