Multidimensional measure of aggression in adolescents: Croatian validation of the Peer Conflict Scale
Słowa kluczowe:aggression, CFA, EFA
In order to adequately assess aggression in adolescence, the Peer Conflict Scale (PCS) was developed. It evaluates both forms and functions of aggression (i.e. proactive overt, proactive relational, reactive overt and reactive relational aggression). The goal of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Croatian version of the Peer Conflict Scale.
Participants and procedure
The total sample consisted of 656 high school students from the City of Zagreb (age range 16-17, 55.33% boys). Independent exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to determine the factor structure, and the best fitting model of the PCS on a Croatian sample.
Both results of EFA and CFA support a proposed four-factor model of the instrument. Reliabilities of the instrument’s scales were acceptable. The measurement invariance across gender was established. In order to analyse the construct validity of the PCS, relations between aggression subtypes and the theoretically meaningful variable, i.e. anxiety, were assessed. Reactive rela-tional aggression had the highest correlation with anxiety, while proactive overt aggression did not correlate significantly with anxiety. Furthermore, gender differences in aggression subtypes were assessed, and were in accordance with past research.
Our study verifies the reliability, factor structure and construct validity of PCS in a sample of Croatian adolescents. However, the results of this study suggest that the response format should be changed. Furthermore, some items did not match well with corresponding factors and the best fitting model was the one in which those items were excluded. Therefore, we suggest that two items should be replaced with new ones.
Andreou, E. (2006). Social reference, perceived popularity and social intelligence – Relations to overt and relational aggression. School Psychology International, 27, 339–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0143034306067286.
Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: a meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, 8, 291–322. https://doi. org/10.1037/1089-26184.108.40.2061.
Atkins, M. S., Osborne, M. L., Bennett, D. S., Hess, L. E., & Halperin, J. M. (2001). Children’s competitive peer aggression during reward and punishment. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 27, 1–13. https:// doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337(20010101/31)27:13.0.co;2-j.
Bailey, C. A., & Ostrov, J. M. (2008). Differentiating forms and functions of aggression in emerging adults: Associations with hostile attribution biases and normative beliefs. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 713–722. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964- 007-9211-5.
Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.
Barry, C. T., Frick, P. J., DeShazo, T. M., McCoy, M., Ellis, M., & Loney, B. R. (2000). The importance of callous-unemotional traits for extending the concept of psychopathy to children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 335–340. https://doi. org/10.1037/0021-843x.109.2.335.
Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59–73. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033- 2909.106.1.59.
Bubier, J. L., & Drabick, D. A. G. (2009). Co-occurring anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders: The roles of anxious symptoms, reactive aggression, and shared risk processes. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 658–669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009. 08.005.
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185–1229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x.
Corr, P. J. (2008). Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST): Introduction. In P. J. Corr (Ed.), The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality (pp. 1–43). Cambridge: University Press.
Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00900.x.
Dambacher, F., Sack, A. T., Lobbestael, J., Arntz, A., Brugman, S., & Schuhmann, T. (2014). Out of control: Evidence for anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity and reactive aggression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 508–516. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsu077.
Dane, A. V., & Marini, Z. A. (2014). Overt and relational forms of reactive aggression in adolescents: Relations with temperamental reactivity and self-regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 60, 60–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.12.021.
Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. J. Peppler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 201–218). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: a social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Frick, P. J., & White, S. F. (2008). Research review: The importance of callous‐unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 359–375. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469- 7610.2007.01862.x.
Fung, A. L., Raine, A., & Gao, Y. (2009). Cross-cultural generalizability of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 473–479. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/00223890903088420.
Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005- 7967(70)90069-0.
Hirschfeld, G., & Brachel, R. (2014). Improving multiplegroup confirmatory factor analysis in R – a tutorial in measurement invariance with continuous and ordinal indicators. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 19, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.7275/qazy2946.
Kempes, M., Matthys, W., Vries, H., & Engeland, H. (2005). Reactive and proactive aggression in children: a review of theory, findings and the relevance for child and adolescent psychiatry. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 11–19. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s00787-005-0432-4.
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Publications. Lansford, J. E., Skinner, A. T., Sorbring, E., Giunta, L. D., Deater‐Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., ...Chang L. (2012). Boys’ and girls’ relational and physical aggression in nine countries. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 298–308. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21433.
Little, T. D., Jones, S. M., Henrich, C. C., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122–133. https:// doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000128.
Loukas, A., Paulos, S. K., & Robinson, S. (2005). Early adolescent social and overt aggression: Examining the roles of social anxiety and maternal psychological control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 335–345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-5757-2.
Luman, M., van Meel, C. S., Oosterlaan, J., & Geurts, H. M. (2012). Reward and punishment sensitivity in children with ADHD: Validating the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSRQ-C). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 145–157. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9547-x.
Marsee, M. A., Barry, C. T., Childs, K. K., Frick, P. J., Kimonis, E. R., Munoz, L. C., & Aucoin, K. J. (2011). Assessing the forms and functions of aggression using self-report: Factor structure and invariance of the Peer Conflict Scale in youths. Psychological Assessment, 23, 792–804. https://doi.org/10.1037/ a0023369.
Marsee, M. A., Weems, C. F., & Taylor, L. K. (2008). Exploring the association between aggression and anxiety in youth: a look at aggressive subtypes, gender, and social cognition. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17, 154–168. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10826-007-9154-1.
Mathieson, L. C., & Crick, N. R. (2010). Reactive and proactive subtypes of relational and physical aggression in middle childhood: Links to concurrent and longitudinal adjustment. School Psychology Review, 39, 601–611.
Murray-Close, D., Ostrov, J. M., Nelson, D. A., Crick, N. R., & Coccaro, E. F. (2011). Proactive, reactive, and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: Measurement, predictive validity, gender differences, and association with intermittent explosive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44, 393–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.09.005.
Neumann, I. D., Veenema, A. H., & Beiderbeck, D. I. (2010). Aggression and anxiety: Social context and neurobiological links. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 4, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh. 2010.00012.
Ostrov, J. M., & Crick, N. R. (2007). Forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: a shortterm longitudinal study. School Psychology Review, 36, 22–43.
Perez-Fuentes, M., Mar Molero, M., Martos, A., Barragan, A. B., Gazquez, J. J., & Sanchez-Marchan, C. (2016). Spanish analysis and validation of Peer Conflict Scale. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 9, 56–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejeps.2016.03.001.
Powell, A. (2009). The relationship between femininity ideology and overt and relational aggression and peer victimization among girls. Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 522. https://digitalcommons. du.edu/etd/522.
Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., & Vernberg, E. M. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 479–491. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp 3004_05.
Stanford, M. S., Houston, R. J., & Baldridge, R. M. (2008). Comparison of impulsive and premeditated perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 26, 709–722. https://doi. org/10.1002/bsl.808.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics. New York: Allyn & Bacon. Terranova, A. M., Morris, A. S., & Boxer, P. (2008). Fear reactivity and effortful control in overt and relational bullying: a six‐month longitudinal study. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 104–115. https:// doi.org/10.1002/ab.20232.
Tuvblad, C., Dhamija, D., Berntsen, L., Raine, A., & Liu, J. (2016). Cross-cultural validation of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) using four large samples from the US, Hong Kong, and China. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38, 48–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10862-015-9501-2.
Tuvblad, C., Raine, A., Zheng, M., & Baker, L. A. (2009). Genetic and environmental stability differs in reactive and proactive aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 437–452. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20319.
Vagos, P., Rijo, D., Santos, I. M., & Marsee, M. A. (2014). Forms and functions of aggression in adolescents: Validation of the Portuguese version of the Peer Conflict Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 570–579. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10862-014-9421-6.
Vigil-Colet, A., Ruiz-Pamies, M., Anguiano-Carrasco, C., & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2012). The impact of social desirability on psychometric measures of aggression. Psicothema, 24, 310–315.
Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2002). Reactively and proactively aggressive children: Antecedent and subsequent characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 495–505. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00040.