Concept of indecisiveness within the HEXACO personality framework


  • Denis Bratko University of Zagreb
  • Filip Cetina University of Zagreb

Słowa kluczowe:

personality, decision making, HEXACO, indecisiveness



Decision making is one of the basic human activities. Indecisiveness, i.e. the stable tendency towards not making decisions in a timely manner, may influence the quality and speed in decision making and have long-term consequences for our professional and personal life. The goal of this research was to examine the position of indecisiveness within the HEXACO model of personality, at both the broad domains and narrow facets level. A secondary goal was to translate the Frost & Shows Indecisiveness Scale (IS) into the Croatian language and examine its validity and reliability.

Participants and procedure

An internet-based sample size of 296 participants filled in both short and long version of Indecisiveness Scale and the HEXACO-PI-R.


The results show that the IS retains the original one-factor structure as proposed by the original authors and has a high reliability. The shortened version shows properties very similar to the longer version and is deemed an appropriate replacement. Extraversion showed the highest positive correlation with indecisiveness, followed by negative correlations with conscientiousness, emotionality and agreeableness.


The Croatian translation of the IS is a valid and reliable measure. The results also confirm that the shortened 11-item version can be used as a replacement for the full 15-item version. Since there was no measure of indecisiveness in Croatian before, this instrument could be used in the future by researchers interested in this construct. It was shown that extraversion has the strongest relationship with indecisiveness, followed by conscientiousness, emotionality and agreeableness.


Download data is not yet available.


American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). APA.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150–166. https://doi. org/10.1177/1088868306294907.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2019). How well do Big Five measures capture HEXACO scale variance? Journal of Personality Assessment, 101, 567–573.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2020). Objections to the HEXACO model of personality structure – and why those objections fail. European Journal of Personality, 34, 492–510. per.2242.

Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., & de Vries, R. E. (2014). The HEXACO honesty-humility, agreeableness, and emotionality factors. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18, 139–152. 1177/1088868314523838.

Babarović, T., & Šverko, I. (2013). The HEXACO personality domains in the Croatian sample. Journal for General Social Issues, 22, 397–411. https://doi. org/10.5559/di.22.3.01.

Bavolar, J. (2018). Psychometric characteristics of two forms of the Slovak version of the Indecisiveness Scale. Judgment and Decision Making, 13, 287–296.

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., & Perugini, M. (1993). The Big Five questionnaire: a new questionnaire to assess the Five Factor Model. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 281–288. https://doi:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90218-R.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI): Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

Deng, L., & Chan, W. (2017). Testing the difference between reliability coefficients alpha and omega. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 77, 185–203.

Di Fabio, A., Busoni, L., & Palazzeschi, L. (2011). Indecisiveness Scale (IS): Proprietà psicometriche della versione italiana [Indecisiveness Scale (IS): Psychometric properties of the Italian version]. Counseling. Giornale Italiano di Ricerca e Applicazioni, 4, 13–24.

Di Fabio, A., Palazzeschi, L., Asulin-Peretz, L., & Gati, I. (2013). Career indecision versus indecisiveness: Associations with personality traits and emotional intelligence. Journal of Career Assessment, 21, 42–56.

Elaydi, R. (2006). Construct development and measurement of indecisiveness. Management Decision, 44, 1363–1376. 1740610715696.

Eysenck, H. J., & Wilson, G. D. (1991). The Eysenck Personality Profiler. Cymeon. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272–299. 10.1037/1082-989X.4.3.272.

Ferrari, J. R. (1994). Dysfunctional procrastination and its relationship with self-esteem, interpersonal dependency and self-defeating behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 673–679.

Ferrari, J. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (2000). Examining behavioral processes in indecision: Decisional procrastination and decision-making style. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 127–137. https://doi. org/10.1006/jrpe.1999.2247.

Ferrari, J. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (2001). Behavioral information search by indecisives. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1113–1123. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00094-5.

Ferrari, J. R., Harriott, J., & Zimmerman, M. (1999). The social support networks of procrastinators: Friends or family in times of trouble? Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 321–334. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00141-X.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage Publications. Frost, R. O., & Gross, R. C. (1993). The hoarding of possessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 367– 382.

Frost, R. O., & Shows, D. L. (1993). The nature and measurement of compulsive indecisiveness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 683–692. https://

Gayton, W. F., Clavin, R. H., Clavin, S. L., & Broida, J. (1994). Further validation of the Indecisiveness Scale. Psychological Reports, 75, 1631–1634.

George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: a simple guide and reference, 17.0 update (10th ed.). Pearson.

Germeijs, V., & De Boeck, P. (2002). A measurement scale for indecisiveness and its relationship to career indecision and other types of indecision. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, 113– 122.

Germeijs, V., & Verschueren, K. (2011a). Indecisiveness and Big Five personality factors: Relationship and specificity. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1023–1028. paid.2011.01.017.

Germeijs, V., & Verschueren, K. (2011b). Indecisiveness: Specificity and predictive validity. European Journal of Personality, 25, 295–305. https:// https://

Germeijs, V., Verschueren, K., & Soenens, B. (2006). Indecisiveness and high school students’ career decision-making process: Longitudinal associations and the mediational role of Anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 397–410. https://doi. org/10.1037/0022-0167.53.4.397.

Gosling, S. D., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., & John, O. P. (2004). Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about Internet questionnaires. American Psychologist, 59, 93–104.

Gravetter, F., & Wallnau, L. (2014). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences (8th ed.). Wadsworth. Jackson, C. J., Furnham, A., & Lawty-Jones, M. (1999). Relationship between indecisiveness and neuroticism: The moderating effect of a toughminded culture. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 789–800. 8869(99)00027-6.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2018). Psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100. Assessment, 25, 543–556.

Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: a ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology, 2, 175–220. 10.1037/1089-2680.2.2.175.

Ng, A., & Hynie, M. (2014). Cultural differences in indecisiveness: The role of naïve dialecticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 45–50.

Osborne, J. W., & Costello, A. B. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10, 1–9.

Patalano, A. L., & Wengrovitz, S. M. (2006). Crosscultural exploration of the Indecisiveness Scale: a comparison of Chinese and American men and women. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 813–824.

Potworowski, G. (2010). Varieties of indecisive experience: Explaining the tendency to not make timely and stable decisions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Michigan.

Rassin, E., & Muris, P. (2005a). To be or not to be... indecisive: Gender differences, correlations with obsessive-compulsive complaints, and behavioural manifestation. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1175–1181. paid.2004.07.014.

Rassin, E., & Muris, P. (2005b). Indecisiveness and the interpretation of ambiguous situations. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1285–1291.

Rassin, E., Muris, P., Booster, E., & Kolsloot, I. (2008). Indecisiveness and informational tunnel vision. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 96–102.

Rassin, E., Muris, P., Franken, I., Smit, M., & Wong, M. (2007). Measuring general indecisiveness. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 60–67.

Skimina, E., Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., Szarota, P., & Izdebski, P. K. (2020). Psychometric properties of the Polish versions of the HEXACO-60 and the HEXACO-100 personality inventories. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 8, 255–278. https://

Spunt, R. P., Rassin, E., & Epstein, L. M. (2009). Aversive and avoidant indecisiveness: Roles for regret proneness, maximization, and BIS/BAS sensitivities. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 256–261.

Trapnell, P. D., & Wiggins, J. S. (1990). Extension of the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to include the Big Five dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 781–790.

Trochim, W. M., & Donnelly, J. P. (2006). The research methods knowledge base (3rd ed.). Atomic Dog. Van Matre, G., & Cooper, S. (1984). Concurrent evaluation of career indecision and indecisiveness. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 62, 637–639. https://

Yates, J. F., Ji, L., Oka, T., Lee, J., Shinotsuka, H., & Sieck, W. R. (2010). Indecisiveness and culture: Incidence, values, and thoroughness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 428–444. https://



Jak cytować

Bratko, D., & Cetina, F. (2021). Concept of indecisiveness within the HEXACO personality framework. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 9(2), 148–158. Pobrano z