Psychometric properties and validation of the Polish adaptation of the Light Triad Scale


  • Rafał Gerymski Opole University
  • Dariusz Krok Opole University


Słowa kluczowe:

Polish adaptation, humanism, light triad, faith in humanity, Kantianism


The aim of the study was to examine the development and structural validation of the Polish version of the Light Triad Scale, which measures three factors: Faith in Humanity, Humanism, and Kantianism. This tool reflects caring and beneficent orienta-tion toward other people, which is demonstrated in everyday behaviour.

Participants and procedure
The participants included 400 people aged between 18 and 80 (M = 29.17, SD = 10.60). To measure psychometric properties and for validation of the scale, we used the Polish Dirty Dozen scale and International Personality Item Pool-Big Five Aspect Scales.

Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis using α and ω coefficients, and two measures of validity (content and criterion validity) were applied. The statistical analyses confirmed an acceptable fit of the three-factor model. The α and ω reliability coef-ficients were satisfactory, with the highest value for Faith in Humanity, and the lowest one for Kantianism. The validity indices of CVR and CVI indicated that the Polish scale items fit well into the concept of the Light Triad.

Overall, the Polish version of the Light Triad Scale proved to be a valuable and reliable tool which presents an innovative approach to measuring positive features of personality and behaviour. Our results demonstrated that the scale as a whole has good psychometric properties that allow its use in further research.


Download data is not yet available.


Ames, D. R., Rose, P., & Anderson, C. P. (2006). The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 440–450. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.03.002.

Back, M. D., Küfner, A. C., Dufner, M., Gerlach, T. M., Rauthmann, J. F., & Denissen, J. J. (2013). Narcissistic admiration and rivalry: Disentangling the bright and dark sides of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 1013–1037.

Brožek, J. (1955). Personality changes with age: an item analysis of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Journal of Gerontology, 10, 194–206.

Carter, G. L., Campbell, A. C., Muncer, S., & Carter, K. A. (2015). A Mokken analysis of the Dark Triad ‘Dirty Dozen’: Sex and age differences in scale structures, and issues with individual items. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 185–191.

Ciżkowicz, B. (2018). Omega McDonalda jako alternatywa dla alfa Cronbacha w szacowaniu rzetelności testu [McDonald’s omega as an alternative to Cronbach’s alpha in scale score reliability estimation]. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 23, 311‒329.

Czarna, A. Z., Jonason, P. K., Dufner, M., & Kossowska, M. (2016). The Dirty Dozen Scale: Validation of a Polish version and extension of the nomological net. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–12. https://doi. org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00445.

DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C., & Peterson, J. B. (2007). Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 880–896. 3514.93.5.880.

Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302. https://doi. org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.276.

Dinic, B., & Wertag, A. (2018). Effects of dark triad and HEXACO traits on reactive/proactive aggression: Exploring the gender differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 123, 44–49. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.11.003.

Donaldson, S. I., Dollwet, M., & Rao, M. A. (2015). Happiness, excellence, and optimal human functioning revisited: Examining the peer-reviewed literature linked to positive psychology. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 185–195. https://doi. org/10.1080/17439760.2014.943801.

Edwards, A. E., & Wine, D. B. (1963). Personality changes with age; their dependency on concomitant intellectual decline. Journal of Gerontology, 18, 182–184.

Epstein, J., Santo, R. M., & Guillemin, F. (2015). A review of guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires could not bring out a consensus. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68, 435–441.

Evans, L., & Tully, R. J. (2016). The triarchic psychopathy measure (TriPM): Alternative to the PCL-R? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 27, 79–86. https://

Francuz, P., & Mackiewicz, R. (2005). Liczby nie wiedzą, skąd pochodzą [The numbers don’t know where they came from]. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden- and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226. 066x.56.3.218.

Greven, C. U., Buitelaar, J. K., & Salum, G. A. (2018). From positive psychology to psychopathology: The continuum of attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59, 203–212.

Ivtzan, I., Lomas, T., Hefferon, K., & Worth, P. (2015). Second wave positive psychology: Embracing the dark side of life. London: Routledge.

Jonason, P. K., Icho, A., & Ireland, K. (2016). Resources, harshness, and unpredictability: the socioeconomic conditions associated with the Dark Triad traits. Evolutionary Psychology, 14, 1–11. https://

Kaufman, S. B., Yaden, D. B., Hyde, E., & Tsukayama, E. (2019). The Light vs. Dark Triad of Personality: Contrasting two very different profiles of human nature. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 467.

Kim, H. Y. (2013). Statistical notes for clinical researchers: assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis. Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, 38, 52–54. 38.1.52.

Koladich, S. J., & Atkinson, B. E. (2016). The dark triad and relationship preferences: a replication and extension. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 253–255.

Krok, D. (2015). The mediating role of optimism in the relations between sense of coherence, subjective and psychological well-being among late adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 134–139.

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563‒575.

Lomas, T., & Ivtzan, I. (2016). Second wave positive psychology: Exploring the positive–negative dialectics of wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 1753–1768.

Lopez, S. J., Pedrotti, J. T., & Snyder, C. R. (2019). Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Otgaar, H., & Meijer, E. (2017). The malevolent side of human nature: a meta-analysis and critical review of the literature on the Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy). Perspectives in Psychological Science, 12, 183–204. 1745691616666070.

Panitz, E. (1989). Psychometric investigation of the Mach IV scale measuring Machiavellianism. Psychological Reports, 64, 963–968. https://doi. org/10.2466/pr0.1989.64.3.963.

Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Toward a taxonomy of dark personalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 421–426. 1414547737.

Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556–563. 6566(02)00505-6.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A classification and handbook. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Razali, N. M., & Wah, Y. B. (2011). Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and Anderson-Darling tests. Journal of Statistical Modeling and Analytics, 2, 21–33.

Rogoza, R., & Cieciuch, J. (2017). Structural investigation of the Short Dark Triad questionnaire in Polish population. Current Psychology, 38, 756–763.

Rogoza, R., & Cieciuch, J. (2018). Dark Triad traits and their structure: an empirical approach. Current Psychology.

Rogoza, R., Wyszyńska, P., Maćkiewicz, M., & Cieciuch, J. (2016). Differentiation of the two narcissistic faces in their relations to personality traits and basic values. Personality and Individual Differences, 95, 85–88.

Rowiński, T., Kowalska-Dąbrowska, M., Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., Czuma, I., Żechowski, C., Markon, K. E., & Krueger, R. F. (2019). Measurement of pathological personality traits according to the DSM-5: a Polish adaptation of the PID-5. Part II–empirical results. Psychiatria Polska, 53, 23-48. https://doi. org/10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/86478.

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.

Schmid, K., & Muldoon, O. T. (2015). Perceived threat, social identification, and psychological well‐being: The effects of political conflict exposure. Political Psychology, 36, 75–92. pops.12073.

Shen, H., & Wyer Jr, R. S. (2007). Procedural priming and consumer judgments: Effects on the impact of positively and negatively valenced information. Journal of Consumer Research, 34, 727–737. https://

Soto, C. J., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2011). Age differences in personality traits from 10 to 65: Big Five domains and facets in a large crosssectional sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 330–348. a0021717.

Srivastava, S., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2003). Development of personality in early and middle adulthood: Set like plaster or persistent change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1041–1053.

Strohminger, N., Knobe, J., & Newman, G. (2017). The true self: a psychological concept distinct from the self. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 12, 551– 560.

Strus, W., Rowiński, T., & Cieciuch, J. (2012). Polish version of Big five Aspects Scales from International Personality Item Pool. Triest: 16th European Conference on Personality.



Jak cytować

Gerymski, R., & Krok, D. (2019). Psychometric properties and validation of the Polish adaptation of the Light Triad Scale. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 7(4), 341–354.