Champa Kingdom towers as a tourist attraction in Vietnam. Historical, geographical and architectural aspects
Keywords:Champa Kingdom, Cham towers, Vietnam, tourism, tourist attractions, tourist development
In the 17th century, the Champa Kingdom, which had operated for more than 1,000 years in what is now central and southern Vietnam, ceased to exist. The Hindu influence of the Cham state remained visible in the brick tower-temples that still exist, as well as in sculptures some of which are in Vietnamese museums. The first research into the Cham culture and history was carried out by French colonisers in the early 20th century, followed by Polish archaeologists and the Vietnamese government, among others. The study of the legacy left by the Cham poses significant difficulties, due to years of warfare, environmental influences, the passage of time and theft. However, the homogeneous culture and architectural structural integrity enable conducting a research analysis of the legacy left behind. The heterogeneous level of tourist development of the different tower groups poses a challenge to create a high standard of tourist attractiveness. The high quality of tourism provision characteristic of My Son and Po Nagar, setting an example to be followed throughout the Southeast Asian region, stands out against the low level of tourism development at other Cham temples.
Ancient structures of Champa found in Binh Dinh, 2015, Vietnam National Museum of History, Hanoi.
Archaeological Champa relics to be excavated, 2014, Vietnam National Museum of History, Hanoi.
Bang An Tower, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam, 2020, Asian Historical Architecture, https://www.orientalarchitecture. com/sid/1359/vietnam/quang-nam-province/bang-antower (accessed 20 September 2020).
Banh It Tower (Silver Tower), n.d., Du Lich Quy Nhon – Bình Định, http://dulichquynhon.binhdinh.gov.vn/en/ thapbanhit (accessed 18 May 2022).
Banh It Towers (built c. 11th century), n.d., Asian Historical Architecture, https://www.orientalarchitecture.com/ sid/677/vietnam/qui-nhon/banh-it-towers (accessed 18 May 2022).
Banh It Towers, n.d., The Vietnam Site, https://www. vietnamsite.nl/banhiteng.htm (accessed 18 May 2022).
Basic information about tourism in Quy Non - Binh Dinh, 2020, Binh Dinh. Binh Dinh Province stops Banh It Tower restoration project, 2022, Saigon Online, https://www.sggpnews.org.vn/ culture_art/binh-dinh-province-stops-banh-it-towerrestoration-project-97806.html (accessed 18 May 2022).
Binh H., 2018, Feature: Discovering Vietnam`s archaeological treasures, Nhan Dan, https://en.nhandan.vn/featurediscovering-vietnams-archaeological-treasurespost59493.html (accessed 21 October 2020).
Canh Tien - the oldest Cham tower in Binh Din, 2019, Quy Nhon.
Canh Tien Tower (12th century) (Vietnamese: Tháp Cánh Tiên), n.d., Asian Historical Architecture, https://www. orientalarchitecture.com/sid/1425/vietnam/binh-dinhprovince/canh-tien-tower (accessed 18 May 2022).
Cham folk culture with Ninh Thuan tourism’s development nowadays, 2009, Cham Studies, https://chamstudies. wordpress.com/2009/12/08/cham-folk-culture-with-ninhthuan-tourism%E2%80%99s-development-nowadays/ (accessed 11 August 2020).
Cham Temples in Quy Nhon, n.d., Quy Nhon Coastal Escape, https://www.quynhon.com/attractions/cham-temples-ofquy-nhon.html (accessed 17 September 2020).
Cham towers in Binh Dinh province, n.d., Vietnamnet Global, vietnamnet.vn/en/travel/cham-towers-in-binh-dinhprovince (accessed 11 August 2020).
Chapman W., 2018, Adjuncts to Empire: the EFEO and the conservation of Champa antiquities, Bulletin of the History of Archaeology, 28(1), 1–12. doi: 10.5334/bhha-584.
Chiêm ngưỡng vẻ đẹp của tháp Chăm cổ Hòa Lai (Eng. Admire the beauty of Hoa Lai ancient Cham tower), 2020, Tap chi Doanh nghiep va Thuong hieu, https:// doanhnghiepthuonghieu.vn/chiem-nguong-ve-depcua-thap-cham-co-hoa-lai-p25333.html (accessed 28 November 2022).
Chien Dan Cham Temples, n.d., 360nomad, https://360nomad. org/chien-dan-cham-temples/ (accessed 13 May 2022).
Chien Dan Towers, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam, n.d., Asian Historical Architecture, https://www.orientalarchitecture. com/sid/1357/vietnam/quang-nam-province/chien-dantowers (accessed 17 May 2022).
Đầm Thị Nại – thắng cảnh gắn liền với những cột mốc lịch sử Việt Nam (Eng. Thi Nai lagoon – a landscape associated with Vietnam’s historical milestones), 2017, tintuc.vn, http://binhdinh.tintuc.vn/du-lich/dam-thi-nai-thangcanh-gan-lien-voi-nhung-cot-moc-lich-su-viet-nam.html (accessed 14 May 2022).
Dang T., 2020, Tháp Hòa Lai, Thuận Bắc, Ninh Thuận, Việt Nam (Eng. Hoa Lai Tower, Thuan Bac, Ninh Thuan, Vietnam), Bộ Môn Kiến Trúc Công Nghệ, Trường Đại học Xây dựng, Ha Noi.
Dang V.T., 2017, Hindu Temples in Champa Culture in the middle of Vietnam, International Journal of Advanced Research, 6(1), 1132–1146. doi: 10.21474/IJAR01/6330.
Đoài K., n.d. , Di tích kiến trúc nghệ thuật và khảo cổ Tháp Hòa LaiCuc Di San Van Hoa (Eng. Relics of architectural art, art and archeology Hoa Lai Tower Cuc Di San Van Hoa), Department of Cultural Heritage, http://dsvh.gov.vn/ditich-kien-truc-nghe-thuat-va-khao-co-thap-hoa-lai-2994 (accessed 14 May 2022).
Đoài K., n.d., Di tích kiến trúc nghệ thuật Tháp Pô Klong Garai (Eng. Po Klong Garai Tower Art Architectural Monument), Department of Cultural Heritage, http://dsvh.gov.vn/ di-tich-kien-truc-nghe-thuat-thap-po-klong-garai-2995 (accessed 27 May 2022).
Doang N. V., 2019, Tướng Cổ Champa Nhưng phát hiện gần đây (Eng. Ancient Generals Champa But recently discovered), Ho Chi Minh City.
Doang N.V., 2015, Một phong cách cua nghe thuat Champa (Eng. A style of crab sounds like Champa), Ho Chi Minh City.
Độc đáo tháp Chăm Khương Mỹ (Eng. Unique Cham Khuong My tower), 2018, Thai Nguyen news, https://baothainguyen. vn/que-huong-dat-nuoc/201811/doc-dao-thap-chamkhuong-my-3678B7D/ (accessed 23 November 2022).
Duc A., 2019, Tháp Chăm đẹp nhất Việt Nam hoàn tất việc sửa chữa để đón khách Tết (Eng. The most beautiful Cham tower in Vietnam completed the repair to welcome Tet guests), Dan Tri, https://dantri.com.vn/du-lich/thap-chamdep-nhat-viet-nam-hoan-tat-viec-sua-chua-de-don-khachtet-20190129145628256.htm (accessed 11 August 2020).
Dung T., 2014, Champa artistic items named national treasures, Online Newspaper of The Government, http:// news.chinhphu.vn/Home/Champa-artistic-items-namednational-treasures/20142/20139.vgp (accessed 19 October 2020).
Excavation at Hoa Lai tower temple site, 2008, Vietnam National Museum of History, Hanoi.
Fangi G., Malinverni E.S., Tassetti A.N., 2013, The metric documentation of Cham Towers in Vietnam by spherical photogrammetry, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, II-5/W1, 121–126. doi: 10.5194/isprsannals-II-5-W1-121-2013.
Hệ thống tháp Chăm ở Bình Định (Eng. System of Cham towers in Binh Dinh), n.d., https://cungphuot.info/he-thong-thapcham-o-binh-dinh-post19993.cp (accessed 24 September 2020).
Hoa Lai Tower, 2020, Tourist Promotion Information Center, Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism in Ninh Thuan Province, Ninh Thuan.
Hoa N., 2021a, Thân thế của người lệnh xây tháp Bằng An (Eng. The status of the person who ordered the construction of Bang An tower), Thanh Nien, https://thanhnien.vn/thanthe-cua-nguoi-lenh-xay-thap-bang-an-post1394656.html (accessed 28 November 2022).
Hoa N., 2021b, Vì sao cụm tháp Chăm ở Tuy Phong (Bình Thuận) lại mang tên Po Dam? (Eng. Why is the cluster of Cham towers in Tuy Phong (Binh Thuan) named Po Dam?), Thanh Nien, https://thanhnien.vn/vi-sao-cum-thap-cham-o-tuyphong-binh-thuan-lai-mang-ten-po-dam-post1090095. html (accessed 28 November 2022).
Hoang S., 2017, Bí ẩn kinh thành Sư tử: Theo dấu tháp Chăm ‘lớn nhất Đông Nam Á (Eng. The mystery of the Lion Citadel: Following the Cham tower „the largest in Southeast Asia”), Van Hoa, https://thanhnien.vn/bi-an-kinh-thanh-su-tutheo-dau-thap-cham-lon-nhat-dong-nam-a-post689121. html (accessed 24 November 2022).
Hubert J. F., 2005, The Art of Champa, Parkstone Press, New York. Huong G., 2011, 32 vẻ đẹp tượng Phật Đồng Dương (Eng. 32 beauties of Dong Duong Buddha statue), Thanh Nien, https://thanhnien.vn/32-ve-dep-tuong-phat-dong-duongpost100523.html (accessed 27 November 2022).
Irving M., 2019, 1001 Buildings, You must see before your die, London. Kate Festival, n.d., Vietnam Online, https://www. vietnamonline.com/destination/ninh-thuan/culture/katefestival.html (accessed 27 May 2022).
Katsimpalis K. T., 2009, Po Nagar Temple: Evidence of Cultural Development and Transition in the Champa Kingdom, Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder. Khám phá báu vật Champa giữa lòng Hà Nội (Eng. Discover Champa treasures in the heart of Hanoi), 2012, https:// baotanglichsu.vn/vi/Articles/1508/51350/kham-phabau-vat-champa-giua-long-ha-noi.html (accessed: 24 November 2022).
Konarska P., 2016, From big family to marriage of convenience – marriage and family in Chinese culture, Kortowski Przegląd Prawniczy, no. 3, 231–235.
Kumar S. A., 2016, Cham Architecture in Viet Nam ‘Journal of International Association of Buddhist Universities on the theme Buddhism and ASEAN Regional Issues, JIABU, 9(1), 119–137.
Le H. H., 2019, Tháp Chăm Poklongarai - nghệ thuật kiến trúc độc đáo (Eng. Poklongarai Cham Tower - unique architectural art), Du lich Vietnam, https://dulichvietnam. com.vn/thap-cham-poklongarai-nghe-thuat-kien-truc-docdao.html (accessed: 25 November 2022).
Le T. H., 2019, Ban Do Du Lich Phu Yen Travel Map, Phu Yen Tourism Promotion Information Center, Tuy Hoa.
Le T.H., 2020, Po Rome Tower, Tourist Promotion Information Centre, Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism in Ninh Thuan Province, Ninh Thuan.
Levin C., 2008, Recasting the Sacred Heroes: A New Discovery of Sculptural Epic Narrative from Ancient Champa, [in:] E.A. Bacus, I.C. Glover, P.D. Sharrock, J. Guy, V.C. Pigott (Eds.), Interpreting Southeast Asia’s Past: Monument, Image and Text, National University of Singapore, 85–99.
Momoki S., 1996, A short introduction to Champa Studies, Kyoto University Research Information Repository, 30, 35–42.
Moska W., 2021, Turystyka w Wietnamie w okresie COVID-19 (Eng. Tourism in Vietnam during COVID-19), AWFiS, Gdańsk.
My Son Sanctuary, 1999, World Heritage List, UNESCO.
My Son Sanctuary, Vietnam, 2006, UNESCO World Heritage Archaeological Site, Conservation Progress Report Global Heritage Fund.
My Son, Vietnam, Investing In International Standards Of Conservation Training To Protect Vietnam’s Oldest And Largest Ancient Ruins, n.d., Global Heritage Fund, https://globalheritagefund.org/places/my-son-vietnam/ (accessed 21 May 2022).
Nakamura R., 2008, The Cham Muslims in Ninh Thuan Province, Vietnam, [in:] O. Farouk, H. Yamamoto (Eds.), Islam at the Margins: the Muslims of Indochina, CIAS Discussion Paper, 3, 7–23.
Nguyen T., 2019a, Cánh Tiên – tháp Chăm cổ nhất Bình Định (Engh. Canh Tien – the oldest Cham tower in Binh Dinh), Bien phong, https://www.bienphong.com.vn/canh-tienthap-cham-co-nhat-binh-dinh-post336986.html (accessed 25 November 2022).
Nguyen T., 2019b, Tháp Po Klong Garai – điểm đến hấp hẫn của Ninh Thuận (Eng. Po Klong Garai Tower - An attractive destination of Ninh Thuan), Báo ảnh Dân tộc và Miền núi, https://dantocmiennui.vn/thap-po-klong-garai-diemden-hap-han-cua-ninh-thuan/237482.html (accessed 25 November 2022).
Nhan Tower – A Unique Symbol of Cham’s Architectural Art in Phu Yen, 2012, Vietnam Stourism, https://www. vietnamtourism.org.vn/travel-guide/destination-invietnam/nhan-tower-a-unique-symbol-of-cham’sarchitectural-art-in-phu-yen.html (accessed 25 November 2022).
Nhạn tower in Tuy Hòa, 2007, Du Lich, https://vtr.org.vn/nhantower-in-tuy-hoa.html (accessed 25 November 2022).
Nhan Tower: Architectural Hallmark, n.d., vietnam.com, https://www.vietnam.com/en/news/article/nhan-towerarchitectural-hallmark.html (accessed 18 May 2022).
Nhóm tháp Khương Mỹ (Eng. Khuong My tower group), n.d., Thanh Pho Da Nang, https://danang.gov.vn/gioi-thieu/chitiet?id=2993&_c=163 (accessed 17 May 2022).
Những di tích kỳ bí - Kỳ 4: Tường thành cổ dưới biển (Eng. Mysterious relics – Part 4: Ancient city wall under the sea), 2013, Thanh Nien, https://thanhnien.vn/nhung-ditich-ky-bi-ky-4-tuong-thanh-co-duoi-bien-post11771.html (accessed 24 November 2022).
Parmentier H., 1909, Inventaire descriptif des monuments Cams de L`Annam, De L`Ecole Francaise D`Extreme-Orient, Paris.
Parul P. D., 2016, The early temples in Campa, Vietnam, [in:] P. D. Parul, G. J. R. Mevissen (Eds.), Temple Architecture and Imagery of South and Southeast Asia, Aryan Books International, Delhi, 30–51.
Pham J., 2014, Seafarer Kingdom Cham – inspired travel combining culture and comfort, ƠI Vietnam, 20/2014, 43–45.
Phan H.N., 2015, Cham Manuscripts, the Endangered Cultural Heritage from a Lost Kingdom, Restaurateur. International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival
Phuong T.K., 2006, Cultural Resource and Heritage Issues of Historic Champa States in Vietnam: Champa Origins, Reconfirmed Nomenclatures, and Preservation of Sites, ARI Working Paper, 75, 3–28.
Phuong T.K., 2009, The Architecture of the Temple-Towers of Ancient Champa (Central Vietnam), [in:] A. Hardy, M. Cucarzi, P. Zolese (Eds.), Champa and the Archaeology of My Son (Vietnam), NUS Press, Singapore, 155–186.
Po Klong Garai Cham Temple stands for seven centuries in central Vietnam, 2020, tuoi tre news, https://tuoitrenews. vn/news/vietnam-life/vietnamese-culture/20201020/ po-klong-garai-cham-temple-stands-for-seven-centuriesin-central-vietnam/57363.html (accessed 23 November 2022).
Po Nagar Towers (built 7th-12th centuries), n.d., Asian Historical Architecture, orientalarchitecture.com (accessed 09 August 2020).
Po Rome Tower, n.d., Vietnam Online. https://www. vietnamonline.com/attraction/po-rome-tower.html (accessed 10.08.2020).
Po Rome Tower-The Last Tower Made from Brick of the Cham, 2012, Vietnam Stourism, https://www.vietnamtourism. org.vn/attractions/culture/pagodas-temples-towerschurches-tombs/po-rome-tower-the-last-tower-madefrom-brick-of-the-cham.html (accessed 23.11.2022).
Po Sah Inư Cham tower heritage, n.d., Binh Thuan Online, http://dulich.baobinhthuan.com.vn/en-us/810- landscapes/5071-po-sah-inu-cham-tower-heritagebr.html (accessed 07 September 2020).
Ramabadran S., 2019, India-Vietnam`s shared culture: The Cham Civilization, University of Southern California, https:// uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/india-vietnam%E2%80%99sshared-culture-cham-civilization (accessed 23 November 2022).
Riblet I., 1997, Les tours de Hu`ng Thanh (Eng. Hu`ng Thanh Towers), Lettre, de la Société des Amis du Champa Ancien, 1, 8–9.
Sa Huynh – Champa Museum opens in Quang Nam, 2009, Vietnam National Administration of Tourism, Hanoi.
Sparkling Legendary My Son Night, 2022, Vietnam National Administration of Tourism, Hanoi. Temple cham de Po Klong Garai, merveille architecturale de Ninh Thuan (Eng. Po Klong Garai Cham Temple, architectural marvel of Ninh Thuan), 2020, Authentic Vietnam Travel, Hanoi.
Thang D. V. 2017. Hindu temples in champa culture in the middle of Vietnam. International Journal of Advanced Research, 6/1, s. 1132-1146. doi: 10.21474/IJAR01/6330.
Thành Thị Nại (Bình Định): Di tích lạ của người Champa (Eng. Citadel of Nai (Binh Dinh): Strange relics of the Champa people), 2011, Vietnam National Museum of History, Hanoi.
Tháp Bằng An (Eng. Bang An Tower), n.d., Dien Ban Museum, http://baotang.dienban.quangnam.gov.vn/Default.aspx? tabid=63&Group=64&NID=179&thap-bang-an (accessed 17 May 2022).
Tháp Bằng An (Eng. Bang An Tower), n.d., http://vietlandmarks. com/module/groups/action/view/id/386 (accessed 18 September 2020).
Tháp Bằng An (Eng. Bang An Tower), n.d., lendang.vn, https:// lendang.vn/destination/thap-bang-an.html (Eng. accessed 17 May 2022).
Tháp Chàm Po Klong Garai sừng giữa nắng gió Phan Rang (Eng. Po Klong Garai Cham Towers in the sun and wind in Phan Rang), 2020, Du Lich Tuoi Tre, https://dulich.tuoitre.vn/ thap-cham-po-klong-garai-sung-sung-giua-nang-gio-phanrang-20200317111138863.htm (accessed 25 November 2022).
Tháp Doi Twin Towers, Qui Nhon, Vietnam, n.d., Asian Historical Architecture, https://www.orientalarchitecture. com/sid/1537/vietnam/qui-nhon/thap-doi-twin-towers (accessed 17 May 2022).
Tháp Khương Mỹ (Eng. Khuong My Tower), 2010, Cong thong tin dien tu Tinh Quang Nam, https://quangnam. gov.vn/webcenter/portal/ubnd/pages_tin-tuc/chitiet?dDocName=PORTAL099022 (accessed 25 November 2022).
Tháp Po Dam (Eng. Po Dam Tower), 2014, https://mytour.vn/ location/2204-thap-po-dam.html (accessed 24 September 2020).
Tháp Po Dam (Eng. Po Dam Tower), n.d., Binh Thuan Tourism, https://mybinhthuan.vn/iv/podam (accessed 18 September 2020).
Tháp Pô Rômê (Eng. Po Rome Tower), 2019, Ninh Thuan Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Phan Rang. Tháp Po Sah Inu (Eng. Po Sah Inu Tower), n.d., Binh Thuan Tourism, https://mybinhthuan.vn/vi/posanu (accessed 26 May 2022).
Tìm hiểu kỹ thuật xây dựng tháp cổ Chăm Pa tại miền trung Việt Nam (Eng. Learn the construction techniques of Cham Pa ancient towers in central Vietnam), 2009, ashui.com, https://ashui.com/mag/congdong/kysu/634-tim-hieuky-thuat-xay-dung-thap-co-cham-pa-tai-mien-trung-vietnam.html, (accessed 24 September 2020).
Tran K.P., 2011, The preservation and management of monuments of Champa in Central Vietnam: the example of My Son sanctuary, a world cultural heritage site, [in:] (Еds.) J.N. Miksic, G.Y. Goh, S. O’Connor (Eds.), Rethinking Cultural Resource Management in Southeast Asia: Preservation, Development, and Neglect, Anthem Press, London, 235–255.
Tran Q., 2020, 800 – year – old tower worships fairy, VNExpress, https://e.vnexpress.net/photo/places/800- year-old-tower-worships-fairy-4121939.html (accessed 25 November 2022).
Truong A., 2020, Vàng Chămpa hơn ngàn năm trước, Nguoi Quang (Eng. Po Klong Garai Cham Towers in the sun and wind in Phan Rang), Van Hoa, https://baoquangnam.vn/ van-hoa/vang-champa-hon-ngan-nam-truoc-84229.html (accessed 28 November 2022).
Truong Đ.G., Suzuki T., Nguyễn V.Q., Yamagata M., 2017, Champa Citadels: An Archaeological and Historical Study, Asian Review of World Histories, 5, 70–105. doi: 10.1163/22879811-12340006.
Truong H., 2022, Visit Po Klong Garai Temple Phan Rang Vietnam, n.d., Vietnam Travel Guide, https://www. expatolife.com/po-klong-garai-temple-phan-rang-ninhthuan-vietnam/ (accessed 27 May 2022).
Vietnamese archaeological treasures introduced to public, 2018, Nhan Dan, https://en.nhandan.vn/vietnamesearchaeological-treasures-introduced-to-public-post59444. html (accessed 27.11.2022).
Wielka Encyklopedia (Eng. The Great Encyclopedia), 2005, PWN, Warszawa.
Yen H., 2021, The Mysterious Charm of Po Sah Inu Cham Towers, Canadian Vietnamese Magazine, https://culturemagazin. com/the-mysterious-charm-of-po-sah-inu-cham-towers/ (accessed 27 December 2020).