EU and Agenda 2030 – Peace, Justice & Strong Institutions

Authors

  • Daniel Silander Linnaeus University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26881/jpgs.2021.4.02

Keywords:

UN Goal 16, democracy, European Union, post-communism, Hungary

Abstract

In 2015, the United Nations (UN) decided on 17 sustainable development goals. Goal 16 focused on peace, justice and strong institutions and on the importance of democracy for global sustainable development. This study explores the status of democracy in Europe and highlights tendencies of authoritarianism in some post-communist states. This happens in a global context of resurgence of autocratization. Although the European Union (EU) continues to be a solid liberal democratic order, challenges in post-communist Europe exist, especially in Hungary as a new authoritarian state within the EU.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bosse G., 2009, Challenges for EU governance through neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership: The values/security nexus in EU–Belarus relations, Contemporary Politics, 15(2), 215–227. doi: 10.1080/13569770902858152.

Brady A.M., 2016, China’s Foreign Propaganda Machine, [in:] L. Diamond, M.F. Plattner, C. Walker (Eds.), Authoritarianism Goes Global: The Challenge to Democracy, The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 187–197.

Carothers T., 2017, Democracy Promotion Under Trump: What has been Lost? What Remains? Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, https://carnegieendowment. org/2017/09/06/democracy-promotion-under-trumpwhat-has-been-lost-what-remains-pub-73021 (accessed 11 March 2021).

Charter, 2000, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/ text_en.pdf (accessed 11 September 2019).

Commission of the European Communities, 2001, COM 2001: 700 final-Making a success of enlargement. Strategy paper and report of the European Commission on the progress towards accession by each of the candidate countries, EU Commission, Brussels.

Commission of the European Communities, 2004, COM 2004: 373 final-European Neighbourhood Policy – Strategy Paper. Brussels: EU Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/2004_communication_from_the_commission_-_european_neighbourhood_policy_-_strategy_paper.pdf (accessed 15 January 2020).

Council & Representatives of Member-states, 2017, The New European Consensus on Development ‘Our World, Our Dignity, Our Future’, The Commission, Brussels.

Council of the European Union, 2003, Copenhagen European Council 12 and 13 December 2020 – Presidency Conclusions, Council of the European Union, Brussels, https://www. consilium.europa.eu/media/20906/73842.pdf (accessed 09 September 2019).

Diamond L., 2021, Democratic regression in comparative perspective: scope, methods, and cause, Democratization, 28(1), 22–42. doi: 10.1080/13510347.2020.1807517.

European Commission, 2016, Next Steps for a Sustainable European Future: European Action for Sustainability, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ TXT/?uri=COM%3A2016%3A739%3AFIN (accessed 12 October 2018).

European Parliament, Council and Commission, 2006, The European Consensus on Development, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:42006 X0224(01)&from=SV (accessed 13 April 2021).

Freedom House Nations in Transit, 2021, Methodology, https://freedomhouse.org/reports/nations-transit/nationstransit-methodology (accessed 19 April 2021).

Freedom House, 2000, Freedom in the World 2000 – The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, Freedom House, Washington.

Freedom House, 2005, Freedom in the World 2005 – The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, Freedom House, Washington.

Freedom House, 2010, Freedom in the World 2010 – The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, Freedom House, Washington. Freedom House, 2015.

Freedom in the World 2015 – The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, Freedom House, Washington.

Freedom House, 2019, Democracy in Retreat. Accessed January 7th 2019 at https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2019/democracy-in-retreat Freedom House, 2020, Freedom in the World, 2020 – A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy, Freedom House, Washington.

Ghitis F., 2020, Trump’s alarming war on democracy, CNN, https://edition.cnn.com/2020/12/10/opinions/trumpwar-on-democracy-ghitis/index.html (accessed 11 March 2021).

Juncker J.C., 2016, State of the Union Address 2016: Towards a better Europe – a Europe that protects, empowers and defends, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/ireland/news/%C3%B3r%C3%A1id-staid-aontais-2016-armhaithe-le-heoraip-n%C3%ADos-fearr-%E2%80%93-eoraip-ina-nd%C3%A9antar-daoine_en (accessed 24 April 2021).

Lührmann A., Lindberg S., 2019, A third wave of autocratization is here: what is new about it?, Democratization, 26(7), 1095–1113. doi: 10.1080/13510347.2019.1582029.

Manners I., 2002, Normative power Europe: A contradiction in terms?, Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(2), 235– 258. doi: 10.1111/1468-5965.00353.

Merloe P., 2016, Election Monitoring vs. Disinformation, [in:] L. Diamond, M.F. Plattner, C. Walker (Eds.), Authoritarianism Goes Global: The Challenge to Democracy, The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 135–151.

Mogherini F., 2016, Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe – A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy, Publications Office of the European Union, https://op.europa.eu/en/publicationdetail/-/publication/3eaae2cf-9ac5-11e6-868c-01aa75ed71a1 (accessed 03 November 2019).

Nathan A.J., 2016, China’s Challenge, [in:] L. Diamond, M.F. Plattner, C. Walker (Eds.), Authoritarianism Goes Global: The Challenge to Democracy, The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 23–39.

Nations in Transit, 2020, Dropping the Democratic Façade, Freedom House, https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/ files/2020-04/05062020_FH_NIT2020_vfinal.pdf (accessed 10 April 2021).

Noury A., Roland G., 2020, Identity Politics and Populism in Europe, Annual Review of Political Science, 23, 421–439. doi: 10.1146/annurev-polisci-050718-033542.

Pace M., 2007, The Construction of EU Normative Power, Journal of Common Market Studies, 45(2), 1041–1045. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5965.2007.00759.x.

Repucci S., 2020, A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy, Freedom House, https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedomworld/2020/leaderless-struggle-democracy (accessed 06 February 2021).

Russett B., 1993, Grasping the Democratic Peace, Princeton University Press, Princeton. Russett B., Oneal J.R., 2001, Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, W. Norton, New York.

Silander D. 2020, Agenda 2030 on Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions, [in:] C. Karlsson, D. Silander (Eds.), Implementing Sustainable Development Goals in Europe, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 162–184.

The Maastricht Treaty, 1992, Treaty on European Union, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, https://europa.eu/european-union/sites/ europaeu/files/docs/body/treaty_on_european_union_ en.pdf (accessed 05 October 2019).

The Nobel Prize organization, 2012. The Nobel Peace Prize, https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/2012/summary/ (accessed 5 May 2021).

The Treaty of the European Union, 2012. Treaty on EU, https://eurlex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:2bf140bf-a3f8 -4ab2-b506-fd71826e6da6.0023.02/DOC_1&format=PDF (accessed 26 April 2021).

UN Charter, 1945, UN Charter, https://www.un.org/en/sections/un-charter/un-charter-full-text/ (accessed 16 October 2019).

UN General Assembly, 2015, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, United Nations General Assembly, New York, https://www.un.org/ga/search/ view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E (accessed 16 October 2019).

UN Goal 16, 2015, Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies, United Nations, https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/peace-justice/ (accessed 08 December 2020).

UN Secretary-General, 2019, Deputy Secretary-General’s remarks at ECOSOC side event “What is democracy? Stepping up engagement around goal 16”, United Nations, https:// www.un.org/sg/en/content/dsg/statement/2019-07-15/ deputy-secretary-generals-remarks-ecosoc-side-eventwhat-democracy-stepping-engagement-around-goal16-prepared-for-delivery (accessed 17 October 2019).

UN, 2019, Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions: Why they matter, https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/wpcontent/uploads/2018/09/16.pdf (accessed 09 January 2019).

V-Dem Institute, 2020, Autocratization Surges – Resistance Grows: Democracy Report 2020, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.

V-Dem Institute, 2021, Autocratization Turns Viral: Democracy Report 2021, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.

V-Dem Institute Index Hungary, 2021. Country Graph Hungary 2000-2020 – Liberal Democracy Index and Participatory Democracy Index, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, https://www.v-dem.net/en/analysis/CountryGraph/ (ac - cessed 22 September 2021).

V-Dem Institute Index Europe. Regional Comparison Europe 2000-2020 – Liberal Democracy Index, University of Go - thenburg, Gothenburg. https://www.v-dem.net/en/analysis/regional/ (accessed 22 September 2021).

Walker C., Ludwig J., 2017a, The Meaning of Sharp Power – How Authoritarian States Project Influence, Foreign Affairs, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/ china/2017-11-16/meaning-sharp-power (accessed 05 March 2021).

Walker C., Ludwig J., 2017b, From ‘Soft Power’ to ‘Sharp Power’ Rising Authoritarian Influence in the Democratic World, National Endowment for Democracy, https://www.ned.org/ wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Introduction-Sharp-Power-Rising-Authoritarian-Influence.pdf (accessed 5 April 2021).

Downloads

Published

2022-01-20

How to Cite

Silander, D. (2022). EU and Agenda 2030 – Peace, Justice & Strong Institutions. Journal of Geography, Politics and Society, 11(4), 18–28. https://doi.org/10.26881/jpgs.2021.4.02

Issue

Section

Articles