Rousseau’s errors: they persist today in educational theory

  • Peter Gray Boston College
Słowa kluczowe: educational theory, progressive education, Rousseau, self-directed education, Sudbury Valley School

Abstrakt

In this essay, the author contends that the approach to education described by Rousseau in Émile is not only impractical but is founded on four misconceptions concerning human nature and development. These are (1) the vulnerable-child child fallacy (that children must be protected from learning the wrong things); (2) the stage-of-development fallacy (that children can learn only certain kinds of things at certain ages); (3) the lone-child-in-nature fallacy (that children learn best from interacting physically with nature, not from interacting verbally with other people); and (4) the controllability fallacy (that is is possible to know a child so well as to be able to control, through subtle means, what the child learns). The author’s own research indicates that the ideal environment for children’s natural, self-directed learning is very different from, in many ways opposite to, that outlined by Rousseau.

Bibliografia

Gray P. (2011), The evolutionary biology of education: How our hunter-gatherer educative instincts could form the basis for education today. “Evolution, Education, and Outreach”, 4.

Gray P. (2012), The value of a play-filled childhood in development of the hunter-gatherer individual. In: D. Narvaez, J. Panksepp, A. Schore, & T. Gleason (Eds.), Evolution, Early Experience and Human Development: From Research to Practice and Policy. New York, Oxford University Press.

Gray P. (2013), Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life. New York, Basic Books.

Gray P., & Chanoff D. (1986), Democratic schooling: What happens to young people who have charge of their own education? “American Journal of Education”, 94.

Greenberg D. (1987), Free at last: The Sudbury Valley School. Framingham, MA, Sudbury Valley School Press.

Greenberg D., & Sadofsky M. (1992), Legacy of trust: Life after the Sudbury Valley School Experience. Framingham, MA, Sudbury Valley School Press.

Greenberg D., Sadofsky M., & J. Lempka (2005), The Pursuit of Happiness: The Lives of Sudbury Valley Alumni. Framingham, MA, Sudbury Valley School Press.

Opublikowane
2015-09-30
Jak cytować
Gray, P. (2015). Rousseau’s errors: they persist today in educational theory. Problemy Wczesnej Edukacji, 30(3), 23-28. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0008.9212