Robak zjada jaguara: procesy tworzenia relacji z perspektywy Amazonii zachodniej


  • Łukasz Krokoszyński L’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense (Bourse Lelong)


Słowa kluczowe:

relation, parasitism, kinship, ethnographic theory, Western Amazonia


On the Tapiche River, in everyday lives of the local people, as well as in their understandings of relations between beings or cosmology, a prominent role is played by the figure of the smallest, often invisible perpetrator – in local terms, “the worm” (gusano). The article follows the ethnographic position of the “worm” in the local representations, suspending its understanding as a parasite in order to emphasize the space combining locally what we would call “parasitism” (as a kind of predation) with what we would call “consanguinity”. In addition, the “worm” position plays a decisive role in the ubiquitous and ambivalent causal process. As such, the ethnographically analyzed dynamics of the “worm” can be understood simultaneously as an outline of the local thought processes. The ethnographic description is at the same time a locally embedded theoretical argument about processes that create relations. It leads to reflection on the default tools and strategies for building anthropological knowledge. Thus, it is also a methodological proposal. I show that through the images opened by the “worm” figure – as a trace of an ambivalent killing-generation process – the local thought introduces distraction into the conventional and fundamental Euro-American distinctions of “alterity” (accompanied by hostility and predation indexed in the form of a jaguar) and the sphere of intimacy and kinship (with the accompanying security). In other words, ethnography shows the limitations of ideological assumptions about relations and kinship that mark the conceptual tools of social sciences.



Download data is not yet available.

Biogram autora

Łukasz Krokoszyński - L’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense (Bourse Lelong)

doktor antropologii społecznej Uniwersytetu w St Andrews (Szkocja), postdoc w Laboratoire d’ethnologie et de sociologie comparative (L’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense). Zainteresowania: etnologia Ameryki Południowej i Północnej, zmiana kulturowa, pokrewieństwo; e-mail:


Anderson, B.R.O. (1997). Wspólnoty wyobrażone: rozważania o zródłach i rozprzestrzenianiu sie nacjonalizmu. Przeł. S. Amsterdamski. Kraków–Warszawa: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy; Fundacja im. Stefana Batorego.
Balée, W., Badie, M.C. (2016). The Meaning of „tree” in Two Different Tupí-Guaraní Languages from Two Different Neotropical Forests. Amazônica – Revista de Antropologia,1, 96–135.
Bilhaut, A.-G. (1999). La connaissance dans le corps De l’usage du minéral chez un guérisseur d’Iquitos, (Amazonie péruvienne), dyplom studiów pogłębionych. Paris: Université Paris X – Nanterre.
Bloch, M. (1999). Commensality and poisoning. Social Research 66(1), 133–149.
Bloch, M., Parry, J.P. (1982). Introduction: death and the regeneration of life. W: M. Bloch, J.P. Perry (eds.), Death and the regeneration of life (s. 1–44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bonilla, L.O. (2007). Des proies si désirables. Soumission et prédation pour les Paumari d’Amazonie brésilienne, praca doktorska. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales.
Brightman, M., Fausto, C., Grotti, V. (2016). Ownership and Nurture: Studies in Native Amazonian Property Relations. New York–Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Buliński, T., Kairski, M. (red.). (2006). Sny, trofea, geny i zmarli: „wojna” w społecznościach przedpaństwowych na przyładzie Amazonii: przegląd koncepcji antropologicznych. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
Calavia Sáez, O. (2000). O Inca Pano: mito, história e modelos etnológicos. Mana, 6, 07–35.
Candea, M., Da Col, G. (2012). The return to hospitality. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 18, 1–19.
Carneiro Da Cunha, M., Viveiros De Castro, E. (1985). Vingança e temporalidade: os Tupinamba. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 71, 191–208.
Carsten, J. (1995). The substance of kinship and the heat of the hearth: feeding, personhood, and relatedness among the Malays in Pulau Langkawi. American Ethnologist, 22, 223–41.
Carsten, J. (ed.). (2000). Cultures of relatedness: New approaches to the study of kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carsten, J. (2013). What kinship does – and how. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 3, 245–51.
Césard, N. (2005). Les épreuves d’insectes en Amazonie-Insect Ordeals in Amazonia. Anthropozoologica, 40, 55–80.
Chaumeil, J.-P. (1985). Échange d’énergie: guerre, identité et reproduction sociale chez les Yagua de l’Amazonie péruvienne. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 71, 143–157.
Chaumeil, J.-P. (1991). Réseaux chamaniques contemporains et relations interethniques dans le Haut Amazone (Pérou). W: C. Pinzón et al. (eds.) Otra América en construcción. Medicinas tradicionales, religiones populares (s. 9–21). Bogota: ICAN-Colcultura-46º Congreso Internacional de Americanistas.
Chaumeil, J.P. (1992). La vida larga. Inmortalidad y ancestralidad en la Amazonía. W: M.S. Cipolletti, E.J. Langdon (eds.), La muerte y el más allá en las culturas indígenas latinoamericanas (s. 113–124). Quito: Abya-Yala.
Chaumeil, J.-P. (2000). Le masque et le placenta: notes sur les costumes-masques yagua. Société suisse des Américanistes Bulletin, 64, 97–105.
Chaumeil, J.-P. (2001). The blowpipe Indians: variations on the theme of blowpipe and tube among the Yagua Indians of the Peruvian Amazon. W: L. Rival, N.L. Whitehead (eds.), Beyond the visible and the material: the Amerindianization of society in the work of Peter Rivière (s. 81–100). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chaumeil, J.-P. (2004). Del proyectil al virus. El complejo de las flechas mágicas en el chamanismo del oeste amazónico. W: G. Fernandez Juarez (ed.), Salud e interculturalidad en América Latina. Perspectivas antropológicas (s. 265–278). Quito: Abya Yala/Bolispania/UCLM.
Clastres, P. (1989). Society against the State. Przeł. R. Hurley. New York: Zone Books.
Course, M. (2010). Of words and fog: Linguistic relativity and Amerindian ontology. Anthropological Theory, 10, 247–263.
Da Col, G. (2013). Strathern bottle On topology, ethnographic theory, and the method of wonder. W: M. Strathern, Learning to see in Melanesia (s. 7–16). Masterclass Series 2. Manchester: HAU Society for Ethnographic Theory.
Da Col, G., Graeber, D. (2011). Foreword: The return of ethnographic theory. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 1, 6–35.
Descola, P. (2014). Beyond nature and culture. Przeł. J. Lloyd. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Dobkin De Rios, M. (1992). Amazon healer: the life and times of an urban shaman. Dorset–Lindfield–Garden City Park: Prism Press; Unity Press.
Edwards, J., Strathern, M. (2000). Including our own. W: J. Carsten (ed.), Cultures of relatedness: New approaches to the study of kinship (s. 149–166). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Erikson, P. (1986). Altérité, tatouage, et anthropophagie chez les Pano: la belliqueuse quête du soi. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 72, 185–210.
Fausto, C. (2006). O wrogach i oswojonych zwierzętach; wojna i szamanizm w Amazonii. Przeł. Ł. Krokoszyński. W: T. Buliński, M. Kairski (red.), Sny, trofea, geny i zmarli; „wojna” w społecznościach przedpaństwowych na przykładzie Amazonii (s. 353–401). Poznań: Wydawnictwo UAM.
Fausto, C. (2007). If God were a jaguar: Cannibalism and Christianity among the Guarani (16th–20th centuries). W: C. Fausto, M. Heckenberger (eds.), Time and memory in indigenous Amazonia: Anthropological perspectives (s. 74–105). Gainsville: University of Florida Press.
Fausto, C. (2008). Too many owners: mastery and ownership in Amazonia. Trans. D. Rodgers. Mana, 4, [dostęp: 9.12.2017].
Fausto, C. (2012). Warfare and Shamanism in Amazonia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fleck, D.W. (2013). Panoan Languages and Linguistics. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History 99). New York: American Museum of Natural History.
Franky, C.E., Mehecha Rubio, D. (2012). Historias de los abuelos, cuerpo y territorio entre los tanimukas y makunas (Amazonia colombiana). W: F.C. Rubio, J.P. Chaumeil, R.P Pineda Camacho (eds.), El Aliento de la memoria. Antropología e historia en la Amazonia andina (s. 120–142). Bogotá: Universidad nacional de Colombia, Facultad deficiencias humanas, Departamento de antropología-CNRS-FEA.
Gasché, J., Vela, N. (2004). Estudio de incentivos para conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad en bosques de comunidades bosquesinas. Iquitos: IIAP.
Gell, A. (1998). Art and agency: an anthropological theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Godelier, M. (2012). The Metamorphoses of Kinship. London–New York: Verso Books.
Gow, P. (1991). Of mixed blood: kinship and history in Peruvian Amazonia. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gow, P. (1994). River people: shamanism and history in Western Amazonia. W: N. Thomas, C. Humphrey (eds.) Shamanism, history and the state (s. 90–113). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Gow, P. (1999). Piro Designs: Painting as Meaningful Action in an Amazonian Lived World. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 5, 229–246.
Gow, P. (2001). An Amazonian myth and its history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gow, P. (2003). Ex-cocama: identidades em transformação na Amazônia peruana. Mana, 9, 57–79.
Gow, P. (2007). Ropa como aculturación en la selva peruana. Amazonía Peruana, 15, 283–304.
Gow, P. (2015). Steps towards an ethnographic theory of acculturation. Etnografia. Praktyki, Teorie, Doświadczenia, 1, 34–39.
Grotti, V.E., Brightman, M. (2010). The Other’s Other: Nurturing the Bodies of’Wild’People among the Trio of Southern Suriname. Etnofoor, 22, 51–70.
Hirtzel, V. (2010). Le maître à deux têtes. Une ethnographie du rapport à soi yuracaré (Amazonie bolivienne), praca doktorska. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales.
Kamppinen, M. (1989). Cognitive Systems and Cultural Models of Illness. A Study of Two Mestizo Peasant Communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica.
Karadimas, D. (2003). Dans le corps de mon ennemi: l’hôte parasité chez les insectes comme un modèle de reproduction chez les Miraña d’Amazonie colombienne. W: É. Motte--Florac, J.M.C. Thomas (eds.), River people: shamanism and history in Western Amazonia. Shamanism, history and the state (s. 487–506). Paris: Peeters.
Karadimas, D. (2008). La métamorphose de Yurupari: flûtes, trompes et reproduction rituelle dans le Nord-Ouest amazonien. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 94(1), 127–169.
Krokoszyński, Ł. (2015). Drunken speech: A glimpse into the backstage of sociality in Western Amazonia. Etnografia. Praktyki, Teorie, Doświadczenia, 1, 11–33.
Krokoszyński, Ł. (2016). The Infliction of Descent: An Overview of the Capanahua Descendants’ Explanations of the Generative Process, praca doktorska. St Andrews: University of St Andrews.
Krokoszyński, Ł. (w przygotowaniu). The measure of losses: Anomalous look at kinship in Western Amazon among the descendants of the Capanahua.
Latour, B. (2010). Splatając na nowo to, co społeczne. Wprowadzenie do teorii aktora-sieci. Tłum. A. Derra, K. Abriszewski. Kraków: Universitas.
Latour, B. (2011). Nigdy nie byliśmy nowocześni: Studium z antropologii symetrycznej. Przeł. M. Gdula. Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1988). The Jealous Potter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1994). Opowieść o rysiu. Przeł. E. Bekier. Łódz: Opus.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (2000). Antropologia strukturalna. Przeł. K. Pomian. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo KR.
Lima, T.S. (1999). Towards an ethnographic theory of the distinction between nature and culture in the cosmology of the Juruna tribe. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, 14, 43–52.
Loos, E.E., Loos, B.H. (2003). Diccionario capanahua-castellano. Série Lingüística Peruana 45. Lima: Ministerio de Educación & ILV.
Malinowski, B. (1922). Argonauts of the western Pacific. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Malinowski, B. (1986a). Ogrody koralowe i ich magia: studium metod uprawy ziemi oraz obrzędów towarzyszących rolnictwu na Wyspach Trobrianda: opis ogrodnictwa. Przeł. A. Bydłoń. Dzieła. T. 4. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
Malinowski, B. (1986b). Argonauci Zachodniego Pacyfiku: relacje o poczynaniach i przygodach krajowców z Nowej Gwinei. Przeł. A. Waligórski. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
Malinowski, B. (1987). Ogrody koralowe i ich magia: studium metod uprawy ziemi oraz obrzędów towarzyszących rolnictwu na Wyspach Trobrianda. Przeł. B. Leś. Dzieła. T. 5. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
Menget, P. (1985). Guerre, sociétés et vision du monde dans les basses terres de l’Amérique du Sud – Présentation. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 71, 129–130.
Overing, J., Passes, A. (eds.). (2000). The Anthropology of Love and Anger: The Aesthetics of Conviviality in Native Amazonia. London–New York: Routledge.
Povinelli, E. (2011). Routes/worlds. E-Flux Journal, 27, 1–12.
Rival, L. (1999). Prey at the center: resistance and marginality in Amazonia. W: S. Day, A. Papataxiarchis, M. Stewart (eds.), Lilies of the field: Marginal people who live for the moment (s. 61–79). Boulder: Westview.
Rivas Ruiz, R. (2011). Le serpent, mère de l’eau: chamanisme aquatique chez les Cocama-Cocamilla d’Amazonie péruvienne, praca doktorska. Paris: Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.
Rodgers, D. (2013). The filter trap: Swarms, anomalies, and the quasi-topology of Ikpeng shamanism. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 3, 77–105.
Sadedin, S. (2014). Why pregnancy is a biological war between mother and baby, [dostęp:11.08.201].
Sahlins, M. (2013). What Kinship Is-And Is Not. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Santos Granero, F. (2012). Beinghood and people-making i n native Amazonia: A constructional approach with a perspectival coda. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 2, 181–211.
Santos Granero, F., Barclay Rey De Castro, F. (1994). Introducción. W: F. Santos-Granero, F. Barclay (eds.),‘Guía Etnográfica de la Alta Amazonía. Vol. 2 (s. 19–41). Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales; Institut Français d’Etudes Andines.
Santos-Granero, F. (ed.). (2009). The occult life of things: Native Amazonian theories of materiality and personhood. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Schneider, D.M. (1980). American kinship: a cultural account. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Schneider, D.M. (1984). A critique of the study of kinship. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Serres, M. (1982). The Parasite. Baltimore: John Hopkins University.
SIL (2015). Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali. Ethnologue. Languages of the world, www.ethnologue. com/language/spq [dostęp: 16.05.2015].
Strathern, M. (1988). The gender of the gift: problems with women and problems with society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Toren, C. (1990). Making sense of hierarchy: cognition as social process in Fiji. London: Athlone Press London.
Toren, C. (1993). Making History: The Significance of Childhood Cognition for a Comparative Anthropology of Mind. Man, 28, 461–478.
Vilaça, A. (2002). Making Kin Out Of Others In Amazonia. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 8, 347–365.
Vilaça, A., Wright, R. (2009). Native Christians: modes and effects of Christianity among indigenous peoples of the Americas. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Viveiros De Castro, E.V. (1992). From the enemy’s point of view: humanity and divinity in an Amazonian society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Viveiros De Castro, E. (2001). GUT feelings about Amazonia: potential affinity and the construction of sociality. W: L. Rival, N.L Whitehead (eds.), Beyond the visible and the material: the Amerindianization of society in the work of Peter Rivière (s. 19–43). Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.
Viveiros De Castro, E. (2009a). Métaphysiques cannibales: lignes d’anthropologie post-structurale. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Viveiros De Castro, E. (2009b). The gift and the given: Three nano-essays on kinship and magic. W: S.C. Bamford, J. Leach (eds.), Kinship and beyond: The genealogical model reconsidered (s. 237–268). Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Viveiros De Castro, E.V. (2012). Cosmological perspectivism in Amazonia and elsewhere. HAU: Masterclass Series 1, [dostęp: 2.12.2007].
Wagner, R. (1981). The invention of culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Walker, H. (2012). Demonic trade: debt, materiality, and agency in Amazonia. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 18, 140–159.
Walker, H. (2013). Under a watchful eye: self, power, and intimacy in Amazonia. California: University of California Press.
Yarrow, T. et al. (2015). Detachment: essays on the limits of relational thinking. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Zalamea, F. (2010). Razón de la frontera y fronteras de la razón: pensamiento de los límites en Peirce, Florenski, Marey, y limitantes de la expresión en Lispector, Vieira da Silva, Tarkovski. Bogotá: Universidat Nacional de Colombia.
Žižek, S. (2001). Wzniosły obiekt ideologii. Przeł. J. Bator, P. Dybel. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.




Jak cytować

Krokoszyński, Łukasz. (2017). Robak zjada jaguara: procesy tworzenia relacji z perspektywy Amazonii zachodniej. Etnografia. Praktyki, Teorie, Doświadczenia, (3), 45–86.