“Invisible management” – group cohesion in semi-professional music groups


  • Tobias Marx Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft für Improvisations- und Songkultur Thüringen e.V.

Słowa kluczowe:

small group research, group cohesion, social interaction, music psychology, identification


Small music groups seem to profit from invisible management. To explain this phenomenon the present study shows a three-dimensional concept of group cohesion to be useful. The analysis realised visualization and numerical foundation of a musical dimension, an organisational dimension and a social dimension of group cohesion for the context of semi-professional small groups in popular music. Five bands consisting of 20 musicians in total were assessed via semi-structured interviews. The average identification of musicians with their bands corresponds with musical cohesion only. In summary it seems for music groups to endeavour in extra-musical tasks and goals is heightening the overall group cohesion. Once the shared musical goal is set bands ought to leave the rehearsal room and make joint experiences to build up the basis for long-term group cohesion. Positive effects of the social dimension on overall group cohesion as described in psychological literature cannot be confirmed here. Knowledge about group processes especially in the context of music making are until now missing in the teaching of future professional musicians. Results are recommended to be incorporated into music high school curricula.


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Marx, T. (2019). “Invisible management” – group cohesion in semi-professional music groups. Miscellanea Anthropologica Et Sociologica, 20(2), 155–172. Pobrano z https://czasopisma.bg.ug.edu.pl/index.php/maes/article/view/3675