Zajęcie i okupacja Islandii przez wojska brytyjskie 1940–1943

  • Krzysztof Kubiak Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
Słowa kluczowe: II wojna światowa, Wielka Brytania, Islandia, okupacja

Abstrakt

After the German invasion of Denmark, Winston Churchill, then forming a new cabinet, decided to occupy Iceland. According to the British Prime Minister, this was an operation to prevent the Germans from establishing themselves on the island. According to Churchill, the Germans – who had been successful in Norway – had not only the opportunity and the right forces, but also the strategic motivation to capture Iceland. It should be underlined that, at the time, Iceland, which since 1918 had been an independent state in a personal union with Denmark, declared the will to be strictly neutral. However, Iceland was not able to defend itself. Apart from about 150 policemen and Coast Guards, there were no Icelandic armed forces. The article presents the circumstances and conditions of the British “invasion” of Iceland and the course of the occupation.

Bibliografia

Bertke, D.A., D. Kindell i G. Smith. (2010). World War II Sea War: France Falls, Britain Stand Alone: Day-to-Day Naval Actions April 1940 through September 1940. Dayton: Bertke Publications.

Bittner, D.F. (1983). The Lion and the White Falcon: Britain and Iceland in the World War II Era. Hamden: Archon Books.

Bittner D.F. (1975). The British occupation of Iceland 1940–1942. PhD Dissertation. Columbia (MO): University of Missouri.

Blair, T. (1998). Hitlera wojna u-bootów. T. 1: Myśliwi. Tłum. R. Brzeski i S. Pawliszewski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Magnum.

Carroll, F. (2012). Athenia Torpedoed: The U-Boat Attack that Ignited the Battle of Atlantic. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

Denmark Strait. (2005). Blockade Runners, 3 grudnia 2005. http://www.warcovers.dk/greenland/blockadebreaker.htm (dostęp: 23.12.2014).

Fact File. (2014), Britain Garrisons Iceland. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1126496.shtml (dostęp: 9.12.2014).

Guðmundsson, H.H. (2014). A Nazi’s Disappointment With Iceland. The Reykiavik Grapevine, http://grapevine.is/mag/articles/2014/03/06/a-nazis-disappointment-with-iceland/ (dostęp: 8.12.2014).

Haarr, G.H. (2013). The Gathering Storm: The Naval Warfare in Northern Europe September 1939 – April 1940. Bamsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd.

Hertz, N. (2004). Operation Alcarity: The Azores and the War in the Atlantic. Annapolis: Naval Press Institute.

Hjalmrsson, J.R. (2012). History of Iceland. Reykiavik: Forlagid.

Iceland Garrison. (2017). October 1940 – December 1941. http://70brigade.newmp.org.uk/wiki/Iceland_Garrison_October_1940_-_December_1941 (dostęp: 7.11.2017).

Karlsson G. (2000). The history of Iceland. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Kissinger, H. (1996). Dyplomacja. Tłum. S. Głąbiński, G. Woźniak i I. Zych. Warszawa: Philip Wilson.

Maurers, M. (2014). Auf den Spuren Konrad Maorers. Iceland Review, 15 sierpnia 2014. http://icelandreview.com/de/ansichten/2014/08/15/auf-den-spuren-konrad-maurers-mm (dostęp: 13.10.2017).

McLahan, D. (1971). Admiralicja. Pokój nr 39. Tłum. M. Pająk i W. Rychlicki. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo MON.

Miller, J. (2003). The Northern Atlantic Front: Orkney, Shetland, Faroe, and Iceland at War. Edinburgh: Birlinn.

Penk, M. (2008). To protect Iceland. Die britishe Occupation Islands in Zwei Weltkrieg. Nordeuropa Forum 1: 31–32.

Schuster, C.O. (1993). Operation Icarus: The German Plan to Invade Iceland. Command Magazine, May–June: 62–68.

Wrecksite EU. (2017). http//wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?133470 (dostęp: 12.02.2017).

The National Archives, FO 371/18261, Little to Hume, 8 May 1934, http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/browse (dostęp: 17.12.2017).

The National Archives, FO 371/1942, Denmark and Iceland: Annual Report, 1938, 19 January 1935, http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/browse (dostęp: 17.12.2017).

Whitehead, Þ. (1995). Milli vonar og ótta: Ísland í síðari heimsstyrjöld. Reykjavík: Vaka-Helgafell.

Opublikowane
2018-12-28
Jak cytować
Kubiak, K. (2018). Zajęcie i okupacja Islandii przez wojska brytyjskie 1940–1943. Studia Scandinavica, (2 (22), 135-151. https://doi.org/10.26881/ss.2018.22.08
Dział
Historia, Polityka i Społeczeństwo